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Secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-18, usually requires two signals. The first, due to microbial products such as lipopolysaccharide, initiates transcription of the cytokine genes and accumulation of the precursor proteins. Cleavage and secretion of the cytokines is mediated by caspase-1, in association with an(More)
Glutathione (GSH) is a potentially important component of antioxidant defense in the epithelial lung lining fluid. Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have chronic inflammation in which oxidative stress can be a factor. To examine the hypothesis that the transport of GSH content was defective in CF patients, intracellular and extracellular GSH were measured by(More)
We present arguments for an evolution in our understanding of how antioxidants in fruits and vegetables exert their health-protective effects. There is much epidemiological evidence for disease prevention by dietary antioxidants and chemical evidence that such compounds react in one-electron reactions with free radicals in vitro. Nonetheless, kinetic(More)
Redox (oxidation-reduction) reactions regulate signal transduction. Oxidants such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and lipid hydroperoxides (i.e., reactive oxygen species) are now realized as signaling molecules under subtoxic conditions. Nitric oxide is also an example of a redox mediator. Reactive oxygen species induce various(More)
Low molecular weight thiol-containing compounds have an essential role in many biochemical and pharmacological reactions due to the ease with each they are oxidized, and the rapidity with which they can be regenerated. Thioredoxin and glutathione (GSH) are two of the major small molecular weight thiol-containing compounds synthesized de novo in mammalian(More)
Oxidative stress appears to play an important role in degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). The SN of early PD patients have dramatically decreased levels of the thiol tripeptide glutathione (GSH). GSH plays multiple roles in the nervous system both as an antioxidant and a redox(More)
Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant antioxidant and a major detoxification agent in cells. It is synthesized through two-enzyme reaction catalyzed by glutamate cysteine ligase and glutathione synthetase, and its level is well regulated in response to redox change. Accumulating evidence suggests that GSH may play important roles in cell signaling. This(More)
H2O2 and other reduced oxygen species have been proposed as activators of the transcription factor, NF Kappa B. Stimulated macrophages produce superoxide and H2O2 (the respiratory burst). We tested the hypothesis that production of these species could serve as part of the NF Kappa B activation pathway in rat alveolar macrophages and the J774A.1 mouse(More)
gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) plays key roles in glutathione homeostasis and metabolism of glutathione S-conjugates. Rat GGT is transcribed via five tandemly arranged promoters into seven transcripts. The transcription of mRNA V is controlled by promoter 5. Previously we found that GGT mRNA V-2 was responsible for the induction of GGT in rat alveolar(More)