Henry Jay Forman

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The purpose of this position paper is to present a critical analysis of the challenges and limitations of the most widely used fluorescent probes for detecting and measuring reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Where feasible, we have made recommendations for the use of alternate probes and appropriate analytical techniques that measure the specific(More)
Secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-18, usually requires two signals. The first, due to microbial products such as lipopolysaccharide, initiates transcription of the cytokine genes and accumulation of the precursor proteins. Cleavage and secretion of the cytokines is mediated by caspase-1, in association with an(More)
Redox (oxidation-reduction) reactions regulate signal transduction. Oxidants such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and lipid hydroperoxides (i.e., reactive oxygen species) are now realized as signaling molecules under subtoxic conditions. Nitric oxide is also an example of a redox mediator. Reactive oxygen species induce various(More)
Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide composed of glutamate, cysteine, and glycine. The first and rate-limiting step in GSH synthesis is catalyzed by glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL, previously known as gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase). GCL is a heterodimeric protein composed of catalytic (GCLC) and modifier (GCLM) subunits that are expressed from different(More)
Oxidants are produced as a by-product of aerobic metabolism, and organisms ranging from prokaryotes to mammals have evolved with an elaborate and redundant complement of antioxidant defenses to confer protection against oxidative insults. Compelling data now exist demonstrating that oxidants are used in physiological settings as signaling molecules with(More)
Low molecular weight thiol-containing compounds have an essential role in many biochemical and pharmacological reactions due to the ease with each they are oxidized, and the rapidity with which they can be regenerated. Thioredoxin and glutathione (GSH) are two of the major small molecular weight thiol-containing compounds synthesized de novo in mammalian(More)
Phagocytes such as neutrophils and macrophages produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) during phagocytosis or stimulation with a wide variety of agents through activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH) oxidase that is assembled at the plasma membrane from resident plasma membrane and cytosolic protein components. One of the(More)
We review signaling by reactive oxygen species, which is emerging as a major physiological process. However, among the reactive oxygen species, H(2)O(2) best fulfills the requirements of being a second messenger. Its enzymatic production and degradation, along with the requirements for the oxidation of thiols by H(2)O(2), provide the specificity for time(More)
Macrophages are phagocytic cells that produce and release reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to phagocytosis or stimulation with various agents. The enzyme responsible for the production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide is a multi-component NADPH oxidase that requires assembly at the plasma membrane to function as an oxidase. In addition to(More)
Except for the role of NO in the activation of guanylate cyclase, which is well established, the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in signal transduction remains controversial, despite a large body of evidence suggestive of their participation in a variety of signaling pathways. Several problems have limited(More)