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SOME RECENT ARTICLES IN The FASEB Journal have dealt with an important topic, that of free radicals and their effects on biological structures (1-3). In these and many other studies of high scientific level there is the tacit or explicit assumption that mitochondria are a primary source of free oxygen radicals, such as superoxide. We would like to clarify(More)
Cystic fibrosis (CF), an inherited disease characterized by defective epithelial Cl- transport, damages lungs via chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Glutathione, a major antioxidant in the epithelial lung lining fluid, is decreased in the apical fluid of CF airway epithelia due to reduced glutathione efflux (Gao L, Kim KJ, Yankaskas JR, and Forman(More)
Animal data suggest that the widely abused psychostimulant methamphetamine can damage brain dopamine neurones by causing dopamine-dependent oxidative stress; however, the relevance to human methamphetamine users is unclear. We measured levels of key antioxidant defences [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, six major GSH system enzymes,(More)
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the rate limiting reaction of heme metabolism and plays critical roles in resistance to oxidative stress and other cellular functions. It is well known that HO-1 is induced in response to various stresses; however, the signaling pathways involved remain incompletely elucidated. Acrolein is an alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde(More)
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) plays critical roles in glutathione homeostasis and metabolism. Rat GGT is a single-copy gene from which seven types of GGT mRNA with a common protein encoding sequence, but different 5'-untranslated regions, may be transcribed. We previously showed that type V-2 was the predominant form of GGT mRNA in rat L2 epithelial(More)
Previous studies from this laboratory demonstrated that 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE), a lipid peroxidation product, induces expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo glutathione (GSH) synthesis, in rat alveolar epithelial L2 cells. The present study demonstrates that 4HNE also induces GCS in primary cultured(More)
Scavenger Receptor B1 (SR-B1), also known as HDL receptor, is involved in cellular cholesterol uptake. Stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the skin, is composed of more than 25% cholesterol. Several reports support the view that alteration of SC lipid composition may be the cause of impaired barrier function which gives rise to several skin(More)
4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a major lipid peroxidation product, is toxic at high concentrations, but at near-physiological concentrations it induces detoxifying enzymes. Previous data established that in human bronchial epithelial (HBE1) cells, both genes for glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) are induced by HNE through the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)(More)
Stimulation of alveolar macrophages (AM) with adenosine-5-diphosphate (ADP) results in transient production of superoxide anion radical (O2.-; superoxide) and H2O2 in a metabolic event known as the respiratory burst. Initiation of the respiratory burst appears to depend on activation of protein kinase activity, whereas protein phosphatases might involved in(More)