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We studied the in vivo recombination between homologous DNA sequences cloned in phage lambda and a pBR322-derived plasmid by assaying for the formation of phage-plasmid cointegrates by a single (or an odd number of) reciprocal exchange. (1) Recombination proceeds by the RecBC pathway in wild-type cells and by low levels of a RecF-dependent pathway in recBC-(More)
Sindbis virus, an enveloped virus with a single-stranded RNA genome, was engineered to express a bacterial protein, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), in cultured insect, avian, and mammalian cells. The vectors were self-replicating and gene expression was efficient and rapid; up to 10(8) CAT polypeptides were produced per infected cell in 16 to 20(More)
We have determined the sequences of separate germline genetic elements which encode two parts of a mouse immunglobulin heavy chain variable region. These elements, termed gene segments, are heavy chain counterparts of the variable (V) and joining (J) gene segments of immunoglobulin light chains. The VH gene segment encodes amino acids 1-101 and the JH gene(More)
We constructed full-length cDNA clones of Sindbis virus that can be transcribed in vitro by SP6 RNA polymerase to produce infectious genome-length transcripts. Viruses produced from in vitro transcripts are identical to Sindbis virus and show strain-specific phenotypes reflecting the source of RNA used for cDNA synthesis. The cDNA clones were used to(More)
Genetic and genomic approaches have been successfully used to assign genes to distinct regulatory networks. However, the present challenge of distinguishing differentially regulated genes within a network is particularly hard because members of a given network tend to have similar regulatory features. We have addressed this challenge by developing a method,(More)
The mechanisms of astrovirus pathogenesis are largely unknown, in part due to a lack of a small-animal model of disease. Using shotgun sequencing and a custom analysis pipeline, we identified two novel astroviruses capable of infecting research mice, murine astrovirus (MuAstV) STL1 and STL2. Subsequent analysis revealed the presence of at least two(More)
The PhoP/PhoQ two-component system is a master regulator of Salmonella pathogenicity. Here we report that induction of the PhoP/PhoQ system results in an initial surge of PhoP phosphorylation; the occupancy of target promoters by the PhoP protein; and the transcription of PhoP-activated genes, which then subsides to reach new steady-state levels. This surge(More)
Large blackouts are typically caused by cascading failure propagating through a power system by means of a variety of processes. Because of the wide range of time scales, multiple interacting processes, and the huge number of possible interactions, the simulation and analysis of cascading blackouts is extremely complicated. This paper defines cascading(More)
PhoP and PhoQ comprise a two-component system in the bacterium Salmonella enterica. PhoQ is the sensor kinase/phosphatase that modifies the phosphorylation state of the regulator PhoP in response to stimuli. The amount of phosphorylated PhoP surges after activation, then declines to reach a steady-state level. We now recapitulate this surge in vitro by(More)
SVLM21 is a mutant of Sindbis virus, which in contrast to SVSTD, is able to replicate in Aedes albopictus mosquito cells deprived of methionine. We have obtained evidence that the basis of this low methionine-resistance (LMR) phenotype is the generation of an altered RNA methyltransferase with an increased affinity for S-adenosylmethionine (ado met). We now(More)