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The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) derives minimal risk levels (MRLs) to assist in evaluating risk of adverse health effects in individuals exposed to hazardous substances. MRLs are derived from published values identifying no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (LOAELs) in animal or(More)
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) utilizes chemical-specific minimal risk levels (MRLs) to assist in evaluating public health risks associated with exposure to hazardous substances. During MRL derivation, uncertainty factors (UF) are used. Under current ATSDR methodology, default UFs of 10 are applied to extrapolate from a(More)
Several individual metals including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese, and mercury were demonstrated to affect the neurological system. Metals are ubiquitous in the environment. Environmental and occupational exposure to one metal is likely to be accompanied by exposure to other metals, as well. It is, therefore, expected that interactions or(More)
A draft for public comment Toxicological Profile for RDX was released in 2010. This present edition supersedes any previously released draft or final profile. Toxicological profiles are revised and republished as necessary. For information regarding the update status of previously released profiles, contact ATSDR at: FOREWORD This toxicological profile is(More)
BACKGROUND Lead poisoning affects many organs in the body. Lead inhibits delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), an enzyme with two co-dominantly expressed alleles, ALAD1 and ALAD2. OBJECTIVE Our meta-analysis studied the effects of the ALAD polymorphism on a) blood and bone lead levels and b) indicators of target organ toxicity. DATA SOURCE We(More)
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) derives health-based guidance values known as minimal risk levels (MRLs). By definition, an MRL is a substance-specific estimate of the daily human exposure to a substance that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of adverse, noncancer effects over a specified duration of exposure. MRLs are(More)
Evaluating the health impact from exposure to chemical mixtures is multifaceted. One component is exposure. Exposure, and consequently risk assessment for mixtures and chemicals in general, are often viewed in terms of a given exposure to a given population at a given location over a given time period. However, environmental exposures are present throughout(More)