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The Triple Helix of university–industry–government relations is compared with alternative models for explaining the current research system in its social contexts. Communications and negotiations between institutional partners generate an overlay that increasingly reorganizes the underlying arrangements. The institutional layer can be considered as the(More)
The future of the university and the university of the future: evolution of ivory tower to entrepreneurial paradigm This article examines recent developments in the role of the university in increasingly knowledge-based societies. Ž. Deploying the triple helix model of academic–industry–government relations recently developed elsewhere an emergent(More)
This paper introduces the concept of Triple Helix systems as an analytical construct that systematizes the key features of university-industry-government (Triple Helix) interactions into an 'innovation system' format defined according to systems theory as a set of components, relationships and functions. This conceptual framework offers a broad perspective(More)
The Triple Helix model is increasingly relevant as a conceptual framework for regional development. Its capacity to describe the process as the result of the joint workings of the University, Industry and Government institutional spheres is expanded by introducing the novel concept of " Triple Helix Spaces " : Knowledge, Innovation and Consensus Spaces,(More)
In a knowledge-based society, university, industry and government have equal roles and form a triple helix in stimulating innovation. A stable regulatory framework is a necessary but not sufficient condition. The transformation of a university from a teaching to a research and thence to an entrepreneurial institution is vital. Government must help to(More)
How can scientometrics be made into a more effective tool, with predictive as well as analytical capabilities? A recurring problem in quantitative research is the tendency to grasp for explanatory factors, when they do not appear endogenously from factor analysis, resulting in spurious correlations. We suggest that this obfuscatory phenomenon has appeared(More)
Global investment in biomedical research has grown significantly over the last decades, reaching approximately a quarter of a trillion US dollars in 2010. However, not all of this investment is distributed evenly by gender. It follows, arguably, that scarce research resources may not be optimally invested (by either not supporting the best science or by(More)
I This is a data driven book. As Dragnet, the 1950's American television police procedural's fictional detective, Sergeant Joe Friday of the LAPD put it in his interviews with female witnesses, ''Just the facts ma'am.'' Whatever you might want to know from a Mertonian perspective on the costs and benefits of doing science is discussed in this thorough(More)