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The influence of vaccine strain and antigen mass on the ability of inactivated avian influenza (AI) viruses to protect chicks from a lethal, highly pathogenic (HP) AI virus challenge was studied. Groups of 4-week-old chickens were immunized with inactivated vaccines containing one of 10 haemagglutinin subtype H5 AI viruses, one heterologous H7 AI virus or(More)
Newly hatched chicks lack immunological maturity, which could compromise their ability to respond to infection by pathogens such as Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis (S. enteritidis; SE). A study was conducted in which chicks were infected with a sublethal dose of SE at 1 d posthatch, and the systemic and intestinal immune responses to the challenge(More)
Baculoviruses were engineered to express hemagglutinin (HA) genes of recent avian influenza (AI) isolates of the H5 and H7 subtypes. The proteins were expressed as either intact (H7) or slightly truncated versions (H5). In both cases purified HA proteins from insect cell cultures retained hemagglutination activity and formed rosettes in solution, indicating(More)
Serological surveillance can be an important component for egg quality assurance programs geared toward controlling problems with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. enteritidis) within a flock. Serum is the primary sample source for the procedures, although egg yolk antibody assays have become popularity in recent years. However, these assays tend(More)
An experimental avian influenza (AI) oil-emulsion vaccine was formulated with 1 part inactivated A/turkey/Wisconsin/68 (H5N9) AI virus emulsified in 4 parts oil. Broilers were vaccinated subcutaneously (SC) either at 1 or 3 days old or at 4 or 5 wks old. Commercial white leghorn (WL) layers were vaccinated SC at 12 and 20 wks old or at only 20 wks old.(More)
Twenty-one experimental oil-emulsion vaccines with different emulsifier contents, aqueous-to-oil ratios, and antigen concentrations were compared by immunization of 4-week-old chickens. Vaccines that contained oil-phase (Arlacel 80) and aqueous-phase (Tween 80) emulsifiers induced 2-to-4-fold higher hemagglutination-inhibition titers than vaccines with only(More)
A distinct form of renal disease has been described in patients at various stages of HIV infection that is becoming increasingly important as a cause of morbidity and mortality. Black race and intravenous drug abuse appear to predispose one to its development. The HIV-associated nephropathy is characterized by nephrotic-range proteinuria, rapid progression(More)
Three strains of avian paramyxovirus-1 virus (PMV-1) were used to prepare four experimental monovalent oil-emulsion vaccines. A pigeon PMV-1 isolate (PPMV-1) and the Newcastle disease virus strains La Sota and Ulster were used to prepare four pools of beta-propiolactone-inactivated allantoic fluid for the vaccines. Groups of susceptible white rock chickens(More)
Chickens inoculated with inactivated-virus Newcastle disease vaccines containing different emulsion adjuvants were challenge exposed with viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease virus. Adjuvant activity was evident in all of 9 vaccines containing mineral oil emulsion (OE), but was not evident in 2 vaccines which contained a metabolizable lipid emulsion(More)
The crop (ingluvies), an organ for food storage in most avian species when the proventriculus is full, is located at the base of the esophagus. Little is known about any immunological capacity in the crop, and the current study was conducted to determine whether any antibodies to SE could be found in crop flushes taken from White Leghorn hens following(More)