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BACKGROUND Programmed death 1 (PD-1) protein, a T-cell coinhibitory receptor, and one of its ligands, PD-L1, play a pivotal role in the ability of tumor cells to evade the host's immune system. Blockade of interactions between PD-1 and PD-L1 enhances immune function in vitro and mediates antitumor activity in preclinical models. METHODS In this(More)
PURPOSE Three agents with differing mechanisms of action are available for treatment of advanced colorectal cancer: fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin. In this study, we compared the activity and toxicity of three different two-drug combinations in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who had not been treated previously for advanced disease. (More)
PURPOSE Symptoms and complications of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) differ by metastatic sites. There is a paucity of prospective survival data for patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis colorectal cancer (pcCRC). We characterized outcomes of patients with pcCRC enrolled onto two prospective randomized trials of chemotherapy and contrasted that with(More)
Approximately 20% of a dose of estragole, a naturally occurring flavoring agent, was excreted in the urine of outbred male CD -1 mice as a conjuage (presumably the glucuronide) of 1'-hydroxyestragole, Estragole and its 1'-hydroxy metabolite caused significant increases in the incidences of hepatocellular carcinomas in male CD-1 mice that received the(More)
PURPOSE The optimal chemotherapy regimen administered concurrently with preoperative radiation therapy (RT) for patients with rectal cancer is unknown. National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial R-04 compared four chemotherapy regimens administered concomitantly with RT. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with clinical stage II or III rectal(More)
A simple yet effective method (iso-density percoll centrifugation) has been developed for consistently preparing isolated rat liver parenchymal cells with over 98% initial viability. The method has been applied to cells isolated by a variety of collagenase digestion techniques. This procedure involves the low-speed centrifugation (50 X g) of the initial(More)
The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) genome is commonly present in human cervical carcinoma, in which a subset of the viral genes, E6 and E7, are expressed. The HPV-16 E6 and E7 gene products can associated with and inactivate the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and Rb (the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product), and in tissue culture cells, these(More)