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Levels of Schistosoma mansoni-induced interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 and posttreatment levels of immunoglobulin E recognizing the parasite's tegument (Teg) correlate with human resistance to subsequent reinfection after treatment. We measured changes in whole-blood cytokine production in response to soluble egg antigen (SEA), soluble worm antigen (SWA), or Teg(More)
BACKGROUND Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium falciparum are common infections of school aged children in Kenya. They both cause enlargement of the spleen, but their relative contribution to the condition of splenomegaly remains unknown in areas where both infections are endemic. Here, we have investigated whether relatively high exposure to both infections(More)
ABSTRACT For disease surveillance and mapping within large-scale control programmes, RDTs are becoming popular. For intestinal schistosomiasis, a commercially available urine-dipstick which detects schistosome circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) in host urine is being increasingly applied, however, further validation is needed. In this study, we compared the(More)
Schistosoma mansoni-infected individuals who have low intensities of reinfection following treatment produce immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against a range of S. mansoni adult-worm antigens. One of the targets of the IgE response is an adult-worm sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis band of 22 kDa (Sm22), which contains an antigen(s)(More)
BACKGROUND Amongst school-aged children living in malaria endemic areas, chronic morbidity and exacerbation of morbidity associated with other infections are often not coincident with the presence or levels of Plasmodium parasitaemia, but may result from long-term exposure to the parasite. Studies of hepatosplenomegaly associated with Schistosoma mansoni(More)
In sub-Saharan Africa, chronic hepatosplenomegaly, with palpable firm/hard organ consistency, is common, particularly among school-aged children. This morbidity can be caused by long-term exposure to malaria, or by Schistosoma mansoni, and it is exacerbated when these two occur together. Although immunological mechanisms probably underlie the pathogenic(More)
BACKGROUND Schistosoma mansoni and malaria infections are often endemic in the same communities in sub-Saharan Africa, and both have pathological effects on the liver and the spleen. Hepatosplenomegaly associated with S. mansoni is exacerbated in children with relatively high exposure to malaria. Treatment with praziquantel reduces the degree of(More)
Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen being chronically enlarged and of a firm consistency. Where(More)
Schistosoma mansoni infection is a persistent public health problemin many Kenyan communities. Although praziquantel is available, re-infectionafter chemotherapy treatment is inevitable, especially among children.Chemotherapy followed by intermittent mollusciciding of habitats ofBiomphalaria pfeifferi, the intermediate host snail, may havelonger term(More)
BACKGROUND Human type 2 cytokine responsiveness to schistosome antigens increases after treatment; due either to removal of the immunosuppressive effects of active infection or immunological boosting by antigens released from dying parasites. We determined the responsiveness to Schistosoma mansoni over a 2-year period, when reinfection was restricted by(More)