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Levels of Schistosoma mansoni-induced interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 and posttreatment levels of immunoglobulin E recognizing the parasite's tegument (Teg) correlate with human resistance to subsequent reinfection after treatment. We measured changes in whole-blood cytokine production in response to soluble egg antigen (SEA), soluble worm antigen (SWA), or Teg(More)
BACKGROUND Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium falciparum are common infections of school aged children in Kenya. They both cause enlargement of the spleen, but their relative contribution to the condition of splenomegaly remains unknown in areas where both infections are endemic. Here, we have investigated whether relatively high exposure to both infections(More)
A descriptive analysis of observed water contact activities in seven Kenyan (Akamba) communities is presented. The patterns of contact with time of day, month of year, type of activity, degree of immersion, use of soap, use of 'kithima' and day of week are all considered, with particular attention given to how these vary with age and sex. It is noted that(More)
Levels of prepatent Schistosoma haematobium infection were monitored in intermediate host snails (Bulinus nasutus) collected from transmission sites in coastal Kenya, using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay amplifying the Dra I repeated sequence of S. haematobium. The timing and number of prepatent and patent infections were determined for each site(More)
We have investigated the effects of host age and sex on human antibody isotype responses to Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum adult worm (AW) and soluble egg (SEA) antigens, using sera from subjects in Kenya and the Philippines. Similar trends with age were observed between the two populations despite host, parasite and environmental differences(More)
Severe periportal fibrosis is not an inevitable consequence of infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Genetic predisposition may be a deciding factor in the development of disease. To assess the contribution of genetic factors in the severity of hepatic fibrosis, the degree of familial aggregation was determined in a Kenyan population. Schistosomal fibrosis(More)
Hepatosplenomegaly among Kenyan schoolchildren has been shown to be exacerbated where there is transmission of both Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium falciparum. This highly prevalent and chronic morbidity often occurs in the absence of ultrasound-detectable periportal fibrosis and may be due to immunological inflammation. For a cohort of school-age(More)
This paper presents the results of microgeographical studies of human water contact behavior and Schistosoma mansoni transmission levels and intensity of infection in four rural areas in Machakos District, Kenya. The relationship between intensity of infection (geometric mean egg counts) in 3502 persons aggregated in 120 household clusters and eight(More)
In a study of faecal egg counts of Schistosoma mansoni from 359 people of all ages from a rural Kenyan community, a positive association was demonstrated between infection intensity in individuals before treatment and reinfection intensity in the same individuals 9 months after treatment in certain age groups of the sampled population. Consequences and(More)
Previous studies in school children have demonstrated the slow development with age of resistance to reinfection after chemotherapy of Schistosoma mansoni infections, and have indicated that inappropriate ("blocking") antibody responses prevent the expression of immunity in young children. The present study was designed to investigate further the nature of(More)