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Growing concerns over the inadequate achievement of U.S. students have led to proposals to reward good teachers and penalize (or fire) bad ones. The leading method for assessing teacher quality is “value added” modeling (VAM), which decomposes students’ test scores into components attributed to student heterogeneity and to teacher quality. Implicit in the(More)
Acknowledgments Preface T he concept is simple and attractive: Evaluate teachers on the basis of how much academic growth their students experience over the course of the school year. Often referred to as " value-added, " this concept and the statistical methods for implementing it have been a topic of debate in state legislatures and at state and national(More)
This article explains the impetus in the United States behind the drive to extend test-based accountability to teachers and the growing interest in employing valueadded models to generate the indicators to be used in teacher evaluation. The empirical literature finds that teaching quality is the most important school-related determinant of student. Yet, in(More)
Researchers conducting non-experimental studies of panel data often attempt to remove the potentially biasing effects of individual heterogeneity through the inclusion of fixed effects. I evaluate so-called “Value Added Models” (VAMs) that attempt to identify teachers’ effects on student achievement. I develop falsification tests based on the assumption(More)
Photovoltaics (PV) is an important and rapidly growing area of research. With the advent of power system monitoring and communication technology collectively known as the “smart grid,” an opportunity exists to apply signal processing techniques to monitoring and control of PV arrays. In this paper a monitoring system which provides real-time(More)
Simulation of everyday situations from real life can be a very useful tool in entertainment applications and training systems. Such applications, as games or computer animated movies usually need to provide virtual environments populated with virtual autonomous agents. Commonly, the agents need to be able to evolve in their environment, avoiding collision(More)
This report presents the findings of a research project funded by and carried out under the auspices of the Graduate Record Examinations Board. Executive Summary Graduate education in the United States is characterized by an enormous diversity of disciplines and the predominance of relatively small enrollments in individual departments. In this setting, a(More)
Although considerable effort has been devoted to the problem of reconstructing compressively sensed video, no existing algorithm achieves results comparable to commonly available video compression methods such as H.264. One possible avenue for improving compressively sensed video reconstruction is the use of optical flow information. Current efforts(More)