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Acknowledgments Preface T he concept is simple and attractive: Evaluate teachers on the basis of how much academic growth their students experience over the course of the school year. Often referred to as " value-added, " this concept and the statistical methods for implementing it have been a topic of debate in state legislatures and at state and national(More)
Over the last fifteen years, many states have implemented high-stakes tests as part of an effort to strengthen accountability for schools, teachers, and students. Predictably, there has been vigorous disagreement regarding the contributions of such policies to increasing test scores and, more importantly, to improving student learning. A recent study by(More)
Researchers conducting non-experimental studies of panel data often attempt to remove the potentially biasing effects of individual heterogeneity through the inclusion of fixed effects. I evaluate so-called " Value Added Models " (VAMs) that attempt to identify teachers' effects on student achievement. I develop falsification tests based on the assumption(More)
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is a nationally representative and continuing assessment of what America's students know and can do in various subject areas. is responsible, by law, for carrying out the NAEP project through competitive awards to qualified organizations. By making objective information on student performance available(More)
The need for the usage of signal processing and pattern recognition techniques to monitor photovoltaic (PV) arrays and to detect and respond to faults with minimal human involvement is increasing. The data obtained from the array can be used to dynamically modify the array topology and improve array power output. This is beneficial especially when module(More)
Simulation of everyday situations from real life can be a very useful tool in entertainment applications and training systems. Such applications, as games or computer animated movies usually need to provide virtual environments populated with virtual autonomous agents. Commonly, the agents need to be able to evolve in their environment, avoiding collision(More)
This presentation discusses some " phenomenological primitives " (p-prims) about testing and assessment. " P-prim " is a term coined by the psychologist Andrea diSessa to understand people's incorrect notions about science, such as " heavy objects fall faster than light objects ". Three examples of test theory p-prims are "A test measures what it says at(More)
This report presents the findings of a research project funded by and carried out under the auspices of the Graduate Record Examinations Board. Executive Summary Graduate education in the United States is characterized by an enormous diversity of disciplines and the predominance of relatively small enrollments in individual departments. In this setting, a(More)
In this paper we present a platform called VhCVE, in which relevant issues related to Collaborative Virtual Environments applications are integrated. The main goal is to provide a framework where participants can interact with others by voice and chat. Also, manipulation tools such as a mouse using Computer Vision and Physics are included, as well as(More)