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Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor (AR). We show in transiently transfected HeLa cells that an AR containing 48 glutamines (ARQ48) accumulates in a hormone-dependent manner in both cytoplasmic and nuclear aggregates. Electron microscopy reveals both types of aggregates(More)
Loss of cell polarity is one of the initial alterations in the development of human epithelial cancers. Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF) homologous adaptors 1 and 2 are membrane-associated proteins composed of two amino (N)-terminal PDZ domains and an ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-binding (EB) carboxyl (C)-terminal region. We describe here an(More)
One of the crucial steps in endochondral bone formation is the replacement of a cartilage matrix produced by chondrocytes with bone trabeculae made by osteoblasts. However, the precise sources of osteoblasts responsible for trabecular bone formation have not been fully defined. To investigate whether cells derived from hypertrophic chondrocytes contribute(More)
Many data sets can be viewed as a noisy sampling of an underlying space, and tools from topological data analysis can characterize this structure for the purpose of knowledge discovery. One such tool is persistent homology, which provides a multiscale description of the homological features within a data set. A useful representation of this homological(More)
The neuronal repressor REST (RE1-silencing transcription factor; also called NRSF) is expressed at high levels in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, but its role in these cells is unclear. Here we show that REST maintains self-renewal and pluripotency in mouse ES cells through suppression of the microRNA miR-21. We found that, as with known self-renewal(More)
In [7], A. Lee, K. Pedersen, and D. Mumford study the distributions of 3 × 3 patches from digital photographs and range scans. G. Carlsson, T. Ishkanov, V. de Silva, and A. Zomorodian in [3] apply computational topo-logical tools to the dataset of optical images studied in [7] and find geometric structures for high density subsets. One high density subset(More)
BACKGROUND The Tousled kinases comprise an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins that have been previously implicated in chromatin remodeling, DNA replication, and DNA repair. Here, we used RNA mediated interference (RNAi) to determine the function of the C. elegans Tousled kinase (TLK-1) during embryonic development. RESULTS TLK-1-deficient embryos(More)
BACKGROUND Breast cancer in young women tends to have a natural history of aggressive disease for which rates of recurrence are higher than in breast cancers detected later in life. Little is known about the genetic pathways that underlie early-onset breast cancer. Here we report the discovery of DEAR1 (ductal epithelium-associated RING Chromosome 1), a(More)
Suppose that ball-shaped sensors wander in a bounded domain. A sensor doesn't know its location but does know when it overlaps a nearby sensor. We say that an evasion path exists in this sensor network if a moving intruder can avoid detection. In Coordinate-free coverage in sensor networks with controlled boundaries via homol-ogy, Vin de Silva and Robert(More)