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The inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1 has been suggested to underlie the principal K(+) conductance of mammalian Müller cells and to participate in the generation of field potentials and regulation of extracellular K(+) in the retina. To further assess the role of Kir4.1 in the retina, we generated a mouse line with targeted disruption of the(More)
Fast synaptic transmission depends on the selective ionic permeability of transmitter-gated ion channels. Here we show changes in the ion selectivity of neuronal P2X transmitter-gated cation channels as a function of time (on the order of seconds) and previous ATP exposure. Heterologously expressed P2X2, P2X2/P2X3 and P2X4 channels as well as native(More)
The CNS abundantly expresses P2X receptor channels for ATP; of these the most widespread in the brain is the P2X(4) channel. We show that ivermectin (IVM) is a specific positive allosteric effector of heterologously expressed P2X(4) and possibly of heteromeric P2X(4)/P2X(6) channels, but not of P2X(2), P2X(3), P2X(2)/P2X(3,) or P2X(7) channels. In the(More)
Alpha6-containing (alpha6*) nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) are selectively expressed in dopamine (DA) neurons and participate in cholinergic transmission. We generated and studied mice with gain-of-function alpha6* nAChRs, which isolate and amplify cholinergic control of DA transmission. In contrast to gene knockouts or pharmacological blockers, which(More)
A complementary DNA clone (designated GAT-1) encoding a transporter for the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been isolated from rat brain, and its functional properties have been examined in Xenopus oocytes. Oocytes injected with GAT-1 synthetic messenger RNA accumulated [3H]GABA to levels above control values. The transporter encoded by(More)
Voltage-clamp analysis was applied to study the currents associated with the uptake of extracellular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by the cloned transporter GAT1 expressed at high efficiency in Xenopus oocytes. Steady-state GABA currents were increased at higher extracellular [GABA], [Na+], and [Cl-] and at more negative potentials. The Hill coefficient(More)
This summary article presents an overview of the molecular relationships among the voltage-gated potassium channels and a standard nomenclature for them, which is derived from the IUPHAR Compendium of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels. The complete Compendium, including data tables for each member of the potassium channel family can be found at(More)
A cDNA clone encoding a glycine transporter has been isolated from rat brain by a combined PCR and plaque-hybridization strategy. mRNA synthesized from this clone (designated GLYT1) directs the expression of sodium- and chloride-dependent, high-affinity uptake of [3H]glycine by Xenopus oocytes. [3H]Glycine transport mediated by clone GLYT1 is blocked by(More)
Dopamine (DA) release in striatum is governed by firing rates of midbrain DA neurons, striatal cholinergic tone, and nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) on DA presynaptic terminals. DA neurons selectively express ␣6* nAChRs, which show high ACh and nicotine sensitivity. To help identify nAChR subtypes that control DA transmission, we studied transgenic mice(More)
We measured the permeability ratios (PX/PNa) of 3 wild-type, 1 hybrid, 2 subunit-deficient, and 22 mutant nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes for alkali metal and organic cations using shifts in the bi-ionic reversal potential of the macroscopic current. Mutations at three positions (2', 6', 10') in M2 affected ion selectivity. Mutations at(More)