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A thermostable DNA polymerase was used in an in vitro DNA amplification procedure, the polymerase chain reaction. The enzyme, isolated from Thermus aquaticus, greatly simplifies the procedure and, by enabling the amplification reaction to be performed at higher temperatures, significantly improves the specificity, yield, sensitivity, and length of products(More)
Two new methods were used to establish a rapid and highly sensitive prenatal diagnostic test for sickle cell anemia. The first involves the primer-mediated enzymatic amplification of specific beta-globin target sequences in genomic DNA, resulting in the exponential increase (220,000 times) of target DNA copies. In the second technique, the presence of the(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a common autoimmune disorder that arises from the action of multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. We report the findings of a genome-wide association study of T1D, combined in a meta-analysis with two previously published studies. The total sample set included 7,514 cases and 9,045 reference samples. Forty-one distinct(More)
1 T he discovery of the association between HLA in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p21 with type 1 diabetes, but not with type 2 diabetes, suggested that these disease entities were of different genetic background and pathogenesis. The discovery that some individuals with diabetes had autoantibodies in their blood provided(More)
Allelic sequence variation has been analysed by synthetic oligonucleotide hybridization probes which can detect single base substitutions in human genomic DNA. An allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) will only anneal to sequences that match it perfectly, a single mismatch being sufficient to prevent hybridization under appropriate conditions. To improve(More)
A method is described for directly cloning enzymatically amplified segments of genomic DNA into an M13 vector for sequence analysis. A 110-base pair fragment of the human beta-globin gene and a 242-base pair fragment of the human leukocyte antigen DQ alpha locus were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method, a procedure based on repeated cycles of(More)
The present study investigated the association between variants in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2 gene (PTPN2), as well as an interaction between VDR and PTPN2 and the risk of islet autoimmunity (IA) and progression to type 1 diabetes (T1D). The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) has(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ischemic stroke is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Pathways, including lipid metabolism, systemic chronic inflammation, coagulation, blood pressure regulation, and cellular adhesion, have been implicated in stroke pathophysiology, and candidate gene polymorphisms in these pathways have been proposed as(More)