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A thermostable DNA polymerase was used in an in vitro DNA amplification procedure, the polymerase chain reaction. The enzyme, isolated from Thermus aquaticus, greatly simplifies the procedure and, by enabling the amplification reaction to be performed at higher temperatures, significantly improves the specificity, yield, sensitivity, and length of products(More)
Two new methods were used to establish a rapid and highly sensitive prenatal diagnostic test for sickle cell anemia. The first involves the primer-mediated enzymatic amplification of specific beta-globin target sequences in genomic DNA, resulting in the exponential increase (220,000 times) of target DNA copies. In the second technique, the presence of the(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a common autoimmune disorder that arises from the action of multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. We report the findings of a genome-wide association study of T1D, combined in a meta-analysis with two previously published studies. The total sample set included 7,514 cases and 9,045 reference samples. Forty-one distinct(More)
Allelic sequence variation has been analysed by synthetic oligonucleotide hybridization probes which can detect single base substitutions in human genomic DNA. An allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) will only anneal to sequences that match it perfectly, a single mismatch being sufficient to prevent hybridization under appropriate conditions. To improve(More)
1 T he discovery of the association between HLA in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p21 with type 1 diabetes, but not with type 2 diabetes, suggested that these disease entities were of different genetic background and pathogenesis. The discovery that some individuals with diabetes had autoantibodies in their blood provided(More)
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes (HLA in humans) regulate the immune response to foreign antigens. Molecular and serologic techniques were used to identify products of HLA class I, class II and transporter (TAP) genes (also part of the MHC) in homosexual seroconverters to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Comprehensive statistical(More)
Single-copy sequences can be enzymatically amplified from genomic DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. By using unequal molar amounts of the two amplification primers, it is possible in a single step to amplify a single-copy gene and produce an excess of single-stranded DNA of a chosen strand for direct sequencing or for use as a hybridization probe.(More)
AIMS The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study seeks to identify environmental factors influencing the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) using intensive follow-up of children at elevated genetic risk. This study requires a cost-effective yet accurate screening strategy to identify the high-risk cohort. METHODS The TEDDY(More)