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We describe the dynamics of changes in the intracellular pH (pH(i)) values of a number of lactic acid bacteria in response to a rapid drop in the extracellular pH (pH(ex)). Strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactococcus lactis were investigated. Listeria innocua, a gram-positive, non-lactic acid(More)
Beer is a hostile environment for most microorganisms, but some lactic acid bacteria can grow in this environment. This is primarily because these organisms have developed the ability to grow in the presence of hops. It has been speculated that hop resistance is inversely correlated to resistance against oxidation, and this would have great impact on the(More)
We show that a pH-sensitive derivative of the green fluorescent protein, designated ratiometric GFP, can be used to measure intracellular pH (pHi) in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cells. In cells expressing ratiometric GFP, the excitation ratio (fluorescence intensity at 410 and 430 nm) is correlated to the pHi, allowing fast and(More)
We investigated protein and gene expression in the lag phase of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CNRZ 157 and compared it to the exponential and stationary phases. By means of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 28 highly expressed lag-phase proteins, implicated in nucleotide metabolism, glycolysis, stress response, translation,(More)
Fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy and microelectrode ion flux estimation techniques were combined to study mechanisms of pH homeostasis in Listeria monocytogenes subjected to acid stress at different levels of glucose availability. This novel combination provided a unique opportunity to measure changes in H(+) at either side of the bacterial membrane in(More)
In situ analyses of single Listeria monocytogenes cells at subinhibitory concentrations of leucocin 4010 and nisin revealed two subpopulations when measured by fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM) after staining with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. One subpopulation consisted of cells with a dissipated pH gradient (DeltapH),(More)
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