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After a shift of Bacillus subtilis from aerobic to anaerobic growth conditions, nitrate ammonification and various fermentative processes replace oxygen-dependent respiration. Cell-free extracts prepared from wild-type B. subtilis and from mutants of the regulatory loci fnr and resDE grown under aerobic and various anaerobic conditions were compared by(More)
New, selective 3-aminopyrazole based MK2-inhibitors were discovered by scaffold hopping strategy. The new derivatives proved to inhibit intracellular phosphorylation of hsp27 as well as LPS-induced TNFalpha release in cells. In addition, selected derivative 14e also inhibited LPS-induced TNFalpha release in vivo.
Due to their involvement in human diseases, protein kinases are an important therapeutic target class. Conformation is a key concept for understanding how functional activity, inhibition and sequence are linked. We assemble and annotate the mammalian structural kinome from the Protein Data Bank on the basis of a universal residue nomenclature. We identify a(More)
Pyrrolo[2,3-f]isoquinoline based amino acids, tetracyclic lactams and cyclic ketone analogues are described as novel MK2 inhibitors with IC(50) as low as 5nM and good selectivity profiles against a number of related kinases including ERK, p38alpha and JNKs. TNFalpha release was suppressed from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs), and a(More)
Spirocyclopropane- and spiroazetidine-substituted tetracycles 13D-E and 16A are described as orally active MK2 inhibitors. The spiroazetidine derivatives are potent MK2 inhibitors with IC(50)<3 nM and inhibit the release of TNFalpha (IC(50)<0.3 microM) from hPBMCs and hsp27 phosphorylation in anisomycin stimulated THP-1 cells. The spirocyclopropane(More)
Members of the genus Arthrobacter are usually regarded as obligate aerobic bacteria. The anaerobic growth and energy metabolism of two Arthrobacter species were investigated. Arthrobacter globiformis utilized both nitrate ammonification and lactate, acetate and ethanol producing fermentation processes for anaerobic growth. Only nitrate supported anaerobic(More)
Protein and lipid kinases fulfill essential roles in many signaling pathways that regulate normal cell functions. Deregulation of these kinase activities lead to a variety of pathologies ranging from cancer to inflammatory diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases, cardiovascular disorders, cell growth and survival. 518 protein kinases and about 20(More)
Mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene rearrangement induces leukemic transformation by ectopic recruitment of disruptor of telomeric silencing 1-like protein (DOT1L), a lysine histone methyltransferase, leading to local hypermethylation of H3K79 and misexpression of genes (including HoxA), which drive the leukemic phenotype. A weak fragment-based screening hit(More)
Oncogenic MLL fusion proteins aberrantly recruit Dot1L, a histone methyltransferase, to ectopic loci, leading to local hypermethylation of H3K79 and misexpression of HoxA genes driving MLL-rearranged leukemias. Inhibition of the methyltransferase activity of Dot1L in this setting is predicted to reverse aberrant H3K79 methylation, leading to repression of(More)
Structure-based design of a series of cyclic hydroxyethylamine BACE1 inhibitors allowed the rational incorporation of prime- and nonprime-side fragments to a central core template without any amide functionality. The core scaffold selection and the structure-activity relationship development were supported by molecular modeling studies and by X-ray analysis(More)