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BACKGROUND In many parts of the world, deliberate indoor residual spraying (IRS) of dwellings with insecticides to control malaria transmission remains the only viable option, thereby unintentionally but inevitably also causing exposure to inhabitants. Because mothers are exposed to insecticides via various routes, accumulated residues are transferred to(More)
BACKGROUND The debate regarding dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria prevention and human health is polarized and can be classified into three positions: anti-DDT, centrist-DDT, pro-DDT. OBJECTIVE We attempted to arrive at a synthesis by matching a series of questions on the use of DDT for indoor residual spraying (IRS) with literature and(More)
We present a compilation of all myxomycetes recorded from Papua New Guinea (PNG) and New Caledonia (NC). Specimens were collected during field trips in September 1983–January 1984 to both territories and in August 1991, October 2007, and April 2009 to NC. Bark and dung samples for moist chamber cultures were collected during the field trips in September(More)
Background Control of malaria remains one of the world's chief current public health challenges, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa [1] where malaria is still responsible for 10% of the total disease burden. Mothers, guardians and caregivers of children play a vital role in the prevention, early detection and management of malaria. The general and daily(More)
This report concerns a study which was conducted for SKB. The conclusions and viewpoints presented in the report are those of the authors. SKB may draw modified conclusions, based on additional literature sources and/or expert opinions. Abstract Chlorine-36 (36 Cl), a radioisotope of chlorine (Cl) with a half-life of 301,000 years, is present in some types(More)
(1) The authors would like to thank David Gee for helping to prepare the manuscript. 'There was a strange stillness. The birds for example — where had they gone? Many people spoke about them, puzzled and disturbed. The feeding stations in the backyards were deserted. The few birds seen anywhere were moribund: they trembled violently and could not fly. It(More)
The paradox of the effectiveness of IRS insecticides (including DDT) and its impacts on human health-what can we fix if it isn't broken? The effectiveness of DDT and other insecticides when properly used as indoor residual spray (IRS) to combat malaria is not in question [1]. However, the high body burden of DDT of those protected is very high [2], and the(More)
BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE The blue swallow (Hirundo atrocaerulea) is one of the most threatened bird species in southern Africa. Among terrestrial birds, its plumage is known to be the most water repellent, an adaptation to foraging on the wing in dense fog. Despite this unique adaptation, the nesting success of the blue swallow at the Blue Swallow Natural(More)
Belgium Capsule The wintering area of the nominate subspecies of Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus fuscus is from Ethiopia across Uganda and the Congo basin to the Atlantic, while L. f. intermedius and L. f. graellsii winters in westernmost Africa. Aims To clarify the wintering distributions of the subspecies of Lesser Black-backed Gull. Methods We(More)