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Recent studies show that plant organ positioning may be mediated by localized concentrations of the plant hormone auxin. Auxin patterning in the shoot apical meristem is in turn brought about by the subcellular polar distribution of the putative auxin efflux mediator, PIN1. However, the question of what signals determine PIN1 polarization and how this gives(More)
A central question in developmental biology is whether and how mechanical forces serve as cues for cellular behavior and thereby regulate morphogenesis. We found that morphogenesis at the Arabidopsis shoot apex depends on the microtubule cytoskeleton, which in turn is regulated by mechanical stress. A combination of experiments and modeling shows that a(More)
Morphogenesis during multicellular development is regulated by intercellular signaling molecules as well as by the mechanical properties of individual cells. In particular, normal patterns of organogenesis in plants require coordination between growth direction and growth magnitude. How this is achieved remains unclear. Here we show that in Arabidopsis(More)
WUSCHEL (WUS) is a homeodomain transcription factor produced in cells of the niche/organizing center (OC) of shoot apical meristems. WUS specifies stem cell fate and also restricts its own levels by activating a negative regulator, CLAVATA3 (CLV3), in adjacent cells of the central zone (CZ). Here we show that the WUS protein, after being synthesized in(More)
MOTIVATION The above-ground tissues of higher plants are generated from a small region of cells situated at the plant apex called the shoot apical meristem. An important genetic control circuit modulating the size of the Arabidopsis thaliana meristem is a feed-back network between the CLAVATA3 and WUSCHEL genes. Although the expression patterns for these(More)
Cell proliferation affects both cellular geometry and topology in a growing tissue, and hence rules for cell division are key to understanding multicellular development. Epithelial cell layers have for long times been used to investigate how cell proliferation leads to tissue-scale properties, including organism-independent distributions of cell areas and(More)
Although it is a central question in biology, how cell shape controls intracellular dynamics largely remains an open question. Here, we show that the shape of Arabidopsis pavement cells creates a stress pattern that controls microtubule orientation, which then guides cell wall reinforcement. Live-imaging, combined with modeling of cell mechanics, shows that(More)
We present a rate equation model for the TGF-beta pathway in endothelial cells together with novel measurements. This pathway plays a prominent role in inter- and intracellular communication and subversion can lead to cancer, fibrosis vascular disorders, and immune diseases. The model successfully describes the kinetics of experimental data and also(More)
In animal systems, master regulatory transcription factors (TFs) mediate stem cell maintenance through a direct transcriptional repression of differentiation promoting TFs. Whether similar mechanisms operate in plants is not known. In plants, shoot apical meristems serve as reservoirs of stem cells that provide cells for all above ground organs. WUSCHEL, a(More)
Statistical properties of cell topologies in two-dimensional tissues have recently been suggested to be a consequence of cell divisions. Different rules for the positioning of new walls in plants have been proposed, where e.g. Errara's rule state that new walls are added with the shortest possible path dividing the mother cell's volume into two equal parts.(More)