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Eye movements are the only means of communication for some severely disabled people. However, the high prices of commercial eye tracking systems limit the access to this technology. In this pilot study we compare the performance of a low-cost, webcam-based gaze tracker that we have developed with two commercial trackers in two different tasks: target(More)
This paper presents StarGazer - a new 3D interface for gaze-based interaction and target selection using continuous pan and zoom. Through StarGazer we address the issues of interacting with graph structured data and applications (i.e. gaze typing systems) using low resolution eye trackers or small-size displays. We show that it is possible to make robust(More)
We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted from the moving robot. Gaze control was found to be similar(More)
Accessing the smallest targets in mainstream interfaces using gaze alone is difficult, but interface tools that effectively increase the size of selectable objects can help. In this paper, we propose a conceptual framework to organize existing tools and guide the development of new tools. We designed a discrete zoom tool and conducted a proof-of-concept(More)
Accuracy of an open source remote eye tracking system and a state-of-the-art commercial eye tracker was measured 4 times during a usability test. Results from 9 participants showed both devices to be fairly stable over time, but the commercial tracker was more accurate with a mean error of 31 pixels against 59 pixels using the low cost system. This suggests(More)
Some severely disabled people are excluded from using gaze interaction because gaze trackers are usually expensive (above $10.000). In this paper we present a low-cost gaze pointer, which we have tested in combination with a desktop monitor and a wearable display. It is not as accurate as commercial gaze trackers, and walking while pointing with gaze on a(More)
In this paper we assess the performance of an open-source gaze tracker in a remote (i.e. table-mounted) setup, and compare it with two other commercial eye trackers. An experiment with 5 subjects showed the open-source eye tracker to have a significantly higher level of accuracy than one of the commercial systems, Mirametrix S1, but also a higher error rate(More)
ii iii ABSTRACT This work examines the importance of utilising context and spatial disciplines as a complementary theoretical reference in the development of location-aware applications for the mobile Internet. It describes the development of a WAP prototype of an electronic tourist guide whose concept makes use of these disciplines and of the knowledge on(More)