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The disulfide reducing enzymes glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase are highly conserved among bacteria, fungi, worms, and mammals. These proteins maintain intracellular redox homeostasis to protect the organism from oxidative damage. Here we demonstrate the absence of glutathione reductase in Drosophila melanogaster, identify a new type of(More)
The nucleotide sequences of the large open reading frame (ORF) from segment A of three European strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) have been determined using cDNA clones. This ORF of 3036 nucleotides encodes the virion proteins as a polyprotein in the following order: VP2, VP4, VP3. The nucleotide sequences determined have been compared to(More)
Budgerigar fledgling disease virus 1 (BFDV-1) is the first avian polyomavirus to be identified, and it possesses uncommon structural and biological properties. Here we present an analysis of the processed viral RNAs in infected chicken embryo fibroblast cells. Two early and 18 late BFDV-1 mRNAs were defined according to their 5' ends and internal splice(More)
Avian polyomavirus (APV) causes an acute fatal disease in a variety of avian species. DNA laddering indicating apoptosis was demonstrated in APV-infected chicken embryo (CE) cells. DNA laddering, however, was not observed in Vero cells infected with mammalian polyomavirus simian virus 40. Expression of APV agnoprotein 1a and agnoprotein 1b induced apoptosis(More)
Cell lines from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been established as a tool for the study of the mosquito innate immune system in vitro. Here, we describe the first continuous insect cell line that produces prophenoloxidase (PPO). This cell line (4a-3B) expresses constitutively six PPO genes, three of which are novel (PPO4, PPO5, and PPO6). The PPO(More)
The transition from quiescence to proliferation is a key regulatory step that can be induced by serum stimulation in cultured fibroblasts. The transcription factor Myc is directly induced by serum mitogens and drives a secondary gene expression program that remains largely unknown. Using mRNA profiling, we identify close to 300 Myc-dependent serum response(More)
To study possible extrahepatic sites for the replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV), we examined fresh and cultured peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML), as well as different subpopulations of PBML of HCV-infected patients, for the presence of viral genomic and antigenomic RNA. Sense and antisense oligonucleotide primers derived from HCV sequences(More)
The kinetics of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) replication and induction of apoptosis were investigated in vitro and in vivo. After infection of chicken embryo (CE) cells with IBDV strain Cu-1, the proportion of apoptotic cells increased from 5.8% at 4 h post-infection (p.i.) to 64.5% at 48 h p.i. The proportion of apoptotic cells correlated with(More)
The isolation and characterization of two avian polyomaviruses, from chicken (BFDV-2) and a parrot (BFDV-3), is reported. Both isolates are closely related to the non-mammalian polyomavirus budgerigar fledgling disease virus (BFDV) isolated from budgerigars (now called BFDV-1), and all three viral genomes are shown to have the same basic size of 4981 bp. A(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein forms the internal viral coat that encapsidates the genomic RNA and is enveloped in a host cell-derived lipid membrane. As the single capsid protein, core should be capable of multimerization but attempts to produce virus-like particles following expression of HCV structural proteins have not been successful. In this(More)