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Dysfunction in the monoamine systems of serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) may causally be related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Monoamine depletion studies investigate the direct effects of monoamines on mood. Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) or para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) deplete 5-HT, acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion(More)
Abnormal emotion processing is a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD). Since the emergence of functional neuroimaging techniques, many studies have been conducted in MDD subjects to elucidate the underlying abnormalities in the neural systems involved in emotion regulation. In this systematic review, we discuss this research in the context of the(More)
OBJECTIVE Studies of the effects of pharmacotherapy for major depressive disorder (MDD) on limbic-subcortical-prefrontal brain networks show variable results. We quantified functional changes in the amygdala and the related limbic-subcortical-prefrontal structures after paroxetine treatment with functional magnetic resonance imaging relative to clinical(More)
BACKGROUND The "monocyte-T-cell theory of mood disorders" regards neuroinflammation, i.e. marked activation of microglia, as a driving force in bipolar disorder. Microglia activation can be visualized in vivo using [(11)C]-(R)-PK11195 PET. Indirect evidence suggests the hippocampus as a potential focus of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder. We aim to(More)
Dose escalation is often used in depressed patients who fail to respond to standard doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, but clinical efficacy is equivocal. We aimed to reassess the efficacy of paroxetine dose escalation and quantify whether paroxetine dose escalation increases occupancy of the serotonin transporter (SERT) more than placebo(More)
BACKGROUND Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with low dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS), - particularly relative to high cortisol - although conflicting findings exist. Moreover, it is unclear whether low DHEAS is only present during the depressive state, or manifests as a trait that may reflect vulnerability for recurrence.(More)
OBJECTIVE Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are frequently used as a first antidepressant for major depressive disorder but have response rates of 50% to 60% in daily practice. For patients with insufficient response to SSRIs, switching is often applied. This article aims to systematically review the evidence for switching pharmacotherapy(More)
BACKGROUND Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are frequently used for major depressive disorder, only 50-60% of patients respond to a standard dose. For non-responders, dose escalation is often applied. AIM To systematically review the evidence for dose escalation of SSRIs. METHOD A systematic literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE,(More)
OBJECTIVE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in severe psychiatric disorders (depression, schizophrenia). Here, we provide evidence of how the effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon (1-C) cycle metabolism, which may initially represent adaptive responses, might underlie comorbidity between CVD and psychiatric(More)
BACKGROUND Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis hyperactivity has been observed in (recurrent) major depressive disorder (MDD), although inconsistently and mainly cross-sectional. Longitudinal studies clarifying state-trait issues are lacking. We aimed to determine whether HPA-axis (hyper)activity in recurrent MDD is: (I) reflecting a persistent trait;(More)