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The process of introgression between a transgenic crop modified for better agronomic characters and a wild relative could lead potentially to increased weediness and adaptation to the environment of the wild species. However, the formation of hybrid and hybrid progeny could be associated with functional imbalance and low fitness, which reduces the risk of(More)
It is often alleged that mutations conferring herbicide resistance have a negative impact on plant fitness. A mutant ACCase1781 allele endowing resistance to the sethoxydim herbicide was introgressed from a resistant green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv) population into foxtail millet (S. italica (L.) Beauv.). (1) Better and earlier growth of resistant(More)
It has been claimed that engineering traits into the chloroplast will prevent transgene transmission by pollen, precluding transgene flow from crops. A Setaria italica (foxtail or birdseed millet) with chloroplast-inherited atrazine resistance (bearing a nuclear dominant red-leaf base marker) was crossed with five male-sterile yellow- or green-leafed(More)
Introgression between genetically modified (GM) crops and wild relatives is considered to potentially modify the genetic background of the wild species. The emergence of volunteer-like feral populations through backcross of hybrids to the crop is also a concern. The progeny of spontaneous hybrids between mutant herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica(More)
Concerns have been raised in Europe about the efficiency, sustainability, and environmental impact of the first genetically modified crops. The committees and regulators in charge of approving procedures have encouraged a field trial approach for safety assessment studies under current agronomic conditions. We describe the gene flow from sugar beet (Beta(More)
Numerous studies have focused on the probability of occurrence of gene flow between transgenic crops and their wild relatives and the likelihood of transgene escape, which should be assessed before the commercial release of transgenic crops. This review paper focuses on this issue for oilseed rape, Brassica napus L., a species that produces huge numbers of(More)
Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to investigate genomic relationships between different Setaria species of the foxtail millet gene pool (S. italica) and one interspecific F1 hybrid. The GISH patterns obtained on the two diploid species S. viridis (genome A) and S. adhaerans (genome B), and on their F1 hybrid showed clear differentiation between(More)
Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) applied to the F1 interspecific hybrid between oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38) and wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18) showed the predicted 19 chromosomes from B. napus and 9 chromosomes from R. raphanistrum. The very low female fertility of these interspecific hybrids when backcrossed to R.(More)
Outcrossing rates within the wild green foxtail, Setaria viridis, and the cultivated foxtail millet, S. italica, are very low. However, spontaneous interspecific hybridizations in the experimental garden occurred in both directions at rates ranging from 0.002% to 0.6% according to plant density and distance between parents. Offtypes found in farmers' fields(More)
Is there any risk that the threshold for admixture of genetically modified seeds in the harvest of a conventional cultivar, 0.9% in Europe, will be exceeded in the case of inbreeder crops? Using herbicide-resistant foxtail millet, Setaria italica, as a model of a preferentially autogamous crop, such as wheat and rice, field experiments show that genotype(More)