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In heat-stressed (HS) tomato (Lycopersicon peruvianum) cell cultures, the constitutively expressed HS transcription factor HsfA1 is complemented by two HS-inducible forms, HsfA2 and HsfB1. Because of its stability, HsfA2 accumulates to fairly high levels in the course of a prolonged HS and recovery regimen. Using immunofluorescence and cell fractionation(More)
The influenza virus M2 protein, target of the antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine, forms a proton channel which functions during virus uncoating and maturation by modifying the pH in virions as well as in trans-Golgi vesicles. We studied the influence of different ionic gradients on the inhibition of the proton translocation activity of isolated,(More)
A protocol for chemiluminescence detection of hantaviral antigens in infected cell foci is described. This focus detection is based on the conversion of a substrate into a luminescent product by peroxidase-antibody conjugates; the emitted light of infected cell foci can easily be recorded by autoradiography or video imaging providing a hard copy for(More)
Mitotic HeLa cells showed an increased phosphorylation activity towards myelin basic protein compared to cells in G1 or S phases. Further investigation using renaturation gels revealed that, in mitotic cell lysates, a protein with an apparent molecular mass of around 40 kDa phosphorylates myelin basic protein. This kinase is active early in mitosis, but is(More)
The monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2G8 (subclass IgG2a) raised against acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) from electric organ of Torpedo nacline timilei crossreacted with AChE from Torpedo marmorata, electric eel (Electrophorus electricus), flounder (Platichthys flesus) body muscle, rat brain, bovine brain, and human brain, this suggests that the epitope to(More)
The sensitivities to amantadine and rimantadine of influenza A virus epidemic strains were assayed by the haem-adsorption reduction test in mouse Ehrlich ascites cells in comparison with prototype strains and a rimantadine-resistant mutant. Besides a majority of sensitive strains, two relatively resistant epidemic strains were identified. The possible(More)
To elucidate the mode of action of norakin against influenza A virus we sequenced the hemagglutinin gene of 11 norakin-resistant mutants. Resistance was coupled with 1-3 amino acid exchanges. The majority of mutations was localized in the HA2 polypeptide and was mostly associated with changes in charge or polarity of the amino acids. The amino acid(More)
The action of the anticholinergic drug Norakin (triperiden) on the reproduction of influenza virus A and B strains was studied. In cell culture, primary transcription of influenza A/FPV/Weybridge and of influenza B/Japan/73 is strongly inhibited by Norakin (20 micrograms/ml). When present simultaneously, Norakin and rimantadine exert an additive effect.(More)
In view of the coincidence of antiviral and antiparkinsonism activities of amantadine four antiparkinsonism drugs, NorakinR (triperiden), ParkopanR (trihexyphenidyl), AntiparkinR (diethylbenzhydramine) and AkinetonR (biperiden) were tested for antiviral activity in various virus-cell systems. Norakin inhibited the replication of influenza A viruses in chick(More)