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Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a global regulator that modulates pathogen virulence and biofilm formation in bacteria. Although a bioinformatic study revealed that PilZ domain proteins are the long-sought c-di-GMP binding proteins, the mechanism by which c-di-GMP regulates them is uncertain. Pseudomonas putida PP4397 is one such protein that contains(More)
Although it was only recently identified as a second messenger, c-di-AMP was found to have fundamental importance in numerous bacterial functions such as ion transport. The potassium transporter protein, KtrA, was identified as a c-di-AMP receptor. However, the co-crystallization of c-di-AMP with the protein has not been studied. Here, we determined the(More)
Aminoglycosides bind to the influenza A virus promoter (vRNA) at submicromolar concentration. The complex structure between the vRNA and neomycin illustrates that binding of neomycin causes a conformational change which would affect further transcription processes. Thus, aminoglycosides represent lead compounds for the discovery of antiviral therapeutics(More)
Application of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) in bioanalysis has been limited due to its nonspecific adsorption onto hydrophobic surface in spite of favorable properties such as higher chemical/biological stability, specificity and binding affinity towards target nucleic acids compared to natural nucleic acid probes. Herein, we employed BSA in PNA application(More)
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