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Differences in the in vivo and in vitro responses of T lymphocytes from chimpanzees and human subjects were compared for evidence of HIV-1 related T-cell dysfunction. There was no increased level of programmed cell death (PCD) in HIV-1 infected chimpanzees in contrast to asymptomatic individuals. Anergy could be induced with HIV-1 gp120 in human but not(More)
Current data suggest that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic arose by transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) SIVcpz from a subspecies of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) to humans. SIVcpz of chimpanzees is itself a molecular chimera of SIVs from two or more different monkey species, suggesting that(More)
A retrospective study spanning 20 years was undertaken to investigate the prevalence and modes of transmission of a simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV) in a closed breeding colony of chimpanzees. Of the 197 animals tested, 22 had antibodies that were cross-reactive with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-I) antigens. The specificity of the(More)
The virus-host relationship in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected chimpanzees is thought to be different from that found in other SIV infected African primates. However, studies of captive SIVcpz infected chimpanzees are limited. Previously, the natural SIVcpz infection of one chimpanzee, and the experimental infection of six chimpanzees was(More)
The acyclic purine nucleoside analogue 9-(2-phosphonomethoxyethyl)adenine [PMEA; formerly referred to as 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine] is a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro and of Moloney murine sarcoma virus-induced tumor formation in mice. In the latter system PMEA has stronger antiretroviral(More)
HIV Pr55gag has in the absence of other viral components the capacity to self assemble in budding noninfectious virus-like particles (VLP). The immunological spectrum of the HIV-1IIIB gag-derived VLP was expanded either by stable anchoring of chimeric modified gp 120 on the surface of the VLP (type 1) or by replacing sequences of the Pr55gag precursor by(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate differences in the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses between HIV-1-infected humans and chimpanzees. DESIGN The breadth of the ADCC responses in the two populations were tested against autologous and heterologous HIV-1 and SIVcpz clinical isolates as well as against reference isolates. METHODS ADCC was(More)
Old age is accompanied by an increased incidence of infection and poorer responses to vaccination. In this proof of principle study, old female rhesus macaques (aged 18.5 to 23.9 years) were treated with recombinant simian interleukin-7 (IL-7) or saline, according to a two-phase regime. Treatment was not associated with bone loss as judged by plasma carboxy(More)
Evidence is accumulating that CD4(+) T-helper (Th) responses play a critical role in facilitating effector responses which are capable of controlling and even preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The present work was undertaken to determine whether immunization with multiple antigens influenced individual Th responses and increased(More)
Apoptosis of infected cells is an important host defense mechanism, and many viruses have exploited antiapoptotic proteins that interfere with crucial cellular pathways. Viral FLICE inhibitory proteins (vFLIPs) are encoded by rhadinoviruses like herpesvirus saimiri, the related Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-human herpesvirus 8 (KSHV/HHV8), and the(More)