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BACKGROUND Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) results in different clinical outcomes ranging from asymptomatic containment to rapidly progressing tuberculosis (TB). The mechanisms controlling TB progression in immunologically-competent hosts remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To address these mechanisms, we analyzed TB progression(More)
OBJECTIVES With the introduction of high-throughput biomarker measurements, traditional analysis of these markers is increasingly difficult. Using samples from a diverse group of patients, we tested the applicability of cluster analysis to these data. Using this method, we aim to visualize some of the patterns specific to certain disease groups. In(More)
UNLABELLED Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants. Despite over 50 years of research, to date no safe and efficacious RSV vaccine has been licensed. Many experimental vaccination strategies failed to induce balanced T-helper (Th) responses and were associated with adverse effects such as(More)
The T(h)1/T(h)2 paradigm has been used for decades to characterize phenotypically different immune responses. Recent discoveries, e.g. T(h)17 cells are adding more dimensions to the helper T cell framework, and the T(h)1/T(h)2 paradigm is currently being extended to include these new phenotypes. Previous mathematical models cannot easily be extended to(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS In adults, circulating inflammatory mediators and activated CD14(++) monocytes link obesity to its metabolic and cardiovascular complications. However, it is largely unknown whether these inflammatory changes already occur in childhood obesity. To survey inflammatory changes during the early stages of obesity, we performed a comprehensive(More)
BACKGROUND Severe dengue virus (DENV) disease is associated with extensive immune activation, characterized by a cytokine storm. Previously, elevated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in dengue were found to correlate with clinical disease severity. In the present cross-sectional study we identified markers of microbial translocation and immune activation,(More)
BACKGROUND Endothelial cell dysfunction is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of plasma leakage in patients with acute dengue virus (DENV) infection. Several factors, produced by activated endothelial cells, have been associated with plasma leakage or severe disease in patients with infectious diseases. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study(More)
BACKGROUND During a dengue outbreak on the Caribbean island Aruba, highly elevated levels of ferritin were detected in dengue virus infected patients. Ferritin is an acute-phase reactant and hyperferritinaemia is a hallmark of diseases caused by extensive immune activation, such as haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The aim of this study was to(More)
Following activation by antigen, helper T cells differentiate into one of many effector phenotypes. Formulating mechanistic mathematical models combining regulatory networks at the transcriptional, translational and epigenetic level, we study how individual helper T cells may adopt their different phenotypes. For each cytokine phenotype, for example, T(More)
The T helper paradigm is currently being revised from the Th1-Th2 dichotomy to a multi-state paradigm involving a number of different cell phenotypes. Transcriptional profiling using microarrays has been used to study the development of these phenotypes. There is however no clear consensus on how to approach the analysis of this data, especially in the(More)