Henk G. Schmidt

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Several potential advantages for students' learning are claimed for problem-based learning (PBL). Students in PBL curricula may be more highly motivated; they may be better problem solvers and self-directed learners; they may be better able to learn and recall information; and they may be better able to integrate basic science knowledge into the solutions(More)
In two studies the role of biomedical knowledge in the diagnosis of clinical cases was explored. Experiment 1 demonstrated a decrease in the use of biomedical knowledge with increasing expertise. This result appeared to be at variance with some findings reported in the literature (e.g., Lesgold. 1934). but supported those of others (e.g., Patel, Evans, &(More)
A new theory of the development of expertise in medicine is outlined. Contrary to existing views, this theory assumes that expertise is not so much a matter of superior reasoning skills or in-depth knowledge of pathophysiological states as it is based on cognitive structures that describe the features of prototypical or even actual patients. These cognitive(More)
PURPOSE To test and further develop a causal model of the influence of tutor behaviors on student achievement and interest in the context of problem-based learning. METHOD Data from 524 tutorial groups involving students participating in the four-year undergraduate health sciences curriculum at the University of Limburg in 1992-93 were analyzed. The(More)
CONTEXT Thyroid hormones are essential for neurodevelopment from early pregnancy onward. Yet population-based data on the association between maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy and children's cognitive development are sparse. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to study associations of maternal hypothyroxinemia and of early pregnancy maternal TSH and(More)
OBJECTIVES In this review, we portray the process of problem-based learning (PBL) as a cognitive endeavour whereby the learner constructs mental models relevant to problems. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain how learning is driven in PBL; an activation-elaboration hypothesis and a situational interest hypothesis. METHODS Research relevant to these(More)
PURPOSE The authors investigated continuity and discontinuity of vocabulary skills in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. METHOD Mothers of 3,759 children completed the Dutch version of the MacArthur Short Form Vocabulary Checklist (Zink & Lejaegere, 2003) at 18 months and a Dutch translation of the Language Development Survey (Rescorla, 1989)(More)
In a recent review article, Colliver concluded that there was no convincing evidence that problem-based learning was more effective than conventional methods. He then went on to lay part of the blame on cognitive psychology, claiming that 'the theory is weak, its theoretical concepts are imprecise. the basic research is contrived and ad hoc'. This paper(More)