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In two studies the role of biomedical knowledge in the diagnosis of clinical cases was explored. Experiment 1 demonstrated a decrease in the use of biomedical knowledge with increasing expertise. This result appeared to be at variance with some findings reported in the literature (e.g., Lesgold. 1934). but supported those of others (e.g., Patel, Evans, &(More)
The goal of this study was to increase our understanding of the learning-oriented verbal interactions taking place between students during the problem-based learning (PBL) cycle. The verbal interactions of one PBL group of five students throughout an entire PBL cycle were recorded in this data-intensive case study. The verbatim transcript consisting of more(More)
PURPOSE To test and further develop a causal model of the influence of tutor behaviors on student achievement and interest in the context of problem-based learning. METHOD Data from 524 tutorial groups involving students participating in the four-year undergraduate health sciences curriculum at the University of Limburg in 1992-93 were analyzed. The(More)
CONTEXT Thyroid hormones are essential for neurodevelopment from early pregnancy onward. Yet population-based data on the association between maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy and children's cognitive development are sparse. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to study associations of maternal hypothyroxinemia and of early pregnancy maternal TSH and(More)
PURPOSE The authors investigated continuity and discontinuity of vocabulary skills in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. METHOD Mothers of 3,759 children completed the Dutch version of the MacArthur Short Form Vocabulary Checklist (Zink & Lejaegere, 2003) at 18 months and a Dutch translation of the Language Development Survey (Rescorla, 1989)(More)
In a recent review article, Colliver concluded that there was no convincing evidence that problem-based learning was more effective than conventional methods. He then went on to lay part of the blame on cognitive psychology, claiming that 'the theory is weak, its theoretical concepts are imprecise. the basic research is contrived and ad hoc'. This paper(More)
In two experiments, the effects of level of medical expertise and study time on free recall of a clinical case were assessed. In Experiment 1, a nonmonotonic relationship between level of expertise and recall was found: Subjects of intermediate levels of expertise remembered more information from the case than both experts and novices. This "intermediate(More)
According to Feltovich & Barrows (1984), the general frame used by medical experts to construct a mental representation of a particular patient problem contains a component part for those illness features that are associated with the acquisition of the illness. These 'enabling conditions' are related in several ways to the patient's disease. Examples are(More)