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In two studies the role of biomedical knowledge in the diagnosis of clinical cases was explored. Experiment 1 demonstrated a decrease in the use of biomedical knowledge with increasing expertise. This result appeared to be at variance with some findings reported in the literature (e.g., Lesgold. 1934). but supported those of others (e.g., Patel, Evans, &(More)
Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006) suggest that unguided or minimally guided instructional approaches are less effective and efficient for novices than guided instructional approaches because they ignore the structures that constitute human cognitive architecture. While we concur with the authors on this point, we do not agree to their equation of(More)
PURPOSE The authors investigated continuity and discontinuity of vocabulary skills in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. METHOD Mothers of 3,759 children completed the Dutch version of the MacArthur Short Form Vocabulary Checklist (Zink & Lejaegere, 2003) at 18 months and a Dutch translation of the Language Development Survey (Rescorla, 1989)(More)
In two experiments, the effects of level of medical expertise and study time on free recall of a clinical case were assessed. In Experiment 1, a nonmonotonic relationship between level of expertise and recall was found: Subjects of intermediate levels of expertise remembered more information from the case than both experts and novices. This "intermediate(More)
Contrary to what common sense makes us believe, deliberation without attention has recently been suggested to produce better decisions in complex situations than deliberation with attention. Based on differences between cognitive processes of experts and novices, we hypothesized that experts make in fact better decisions after consciously thinking about(More)
Retrieval practice with particular items from memory can impair the recall of related items on a later memory test. This retrieval-induced forgetting effect has been ascribed to inhibitory processes (M. C. Anderson & B. A. Spellman, 1995). A critical finding that distinguishes inhibitory from interference explanations is that forgetting is found with(More)
A six-factor model of computer anxiety was tested in two samples of university students. The dimensions involved were: computer literacy, self-ecacy, physical arousal caused by computers, a€ective feelings about them, beliefs about the bene®cial e€ects of computers, and beliefs about their dehumanizing aspects. Con®rmatory factor analyses showed that,(More)
CONTEXT Authors have questioned the degree to which medical education research informs practice and advances the science of medical education. OBJECTIVE This study aims to propose a framework for classifying the purposes of education research and to quantify the frequencies of purposes among medical education experiments. METHODS We looked at articles(More)
In this article two studies are reported that tested the nature of the relationship between computer experience and computer anxiety. In the first study 184 first year psychology students were given a questionnaire that measured their computer experience in terms of e.g. breadth of experience, hours spent on working with computers, skills level, the nature(More)
Students collaborating in small groups is a characteristic of problem-based learning (PBL) that is receiving increased consideration in the literature. In this paper findings from studies in this area are synthesized and discussed. A distinction is made between studies focusing on cognitive effects of group learning and studies focusing on motivational(More)