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To identify susceptibility loci for visceral leishmaniasis, we undertook genome-wide association studies in two populations: 989 cases and 1,089 controls from India and 357 cases in 308 Brazilian families (1,970 individuals). The HLA-DRB1-HLA-DQA1 locus was the only region to show strong evidence of association in both populations. Replication at this(More)
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) was first reported from the south-western region of the state of Rio Grande do Norte in 1987. São Miguel municipality and adjacent areas have accounted for 90% of the American cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the region since then. A population survey conducted in São Miguel and adjacent areas was undertaken to(More)
Outcomes of infection with Leishmania chagasi range from self-resolving infection to visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Risk factors determining development of disease are not totally understood, but probably include environmental influences and host genetics. We assessed whether nutrition influenced the outcome of Leishmania infection by comparing relatives of(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania chagasi is endemic to northeast Brazil. A positive delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test response (DTH+) is a marker for acquired resistance to disease, clusters in families and may be genetically controlled. Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in the cytokine 5q23.3-q31.1(More)
The protozoan Leishmania chagasi can cause disseminated, fatal visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or asymptomatic infection in humans. We hypothesized that host genetic factors contribute to this variable response to infection. A family study was performed in neighborhoods of endemicity for L. chagasi near Natal in northeastern Brazil. Study subjects were assessed(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in large cities in Brazil, including Natal. We determined the prevalence of asymptomatic human infection with Leishmania infantum chagasi and associated environmental risks around Natal. Infection was detected by Leishmania skin test (LST) and anti-leishmanial antibodies in humans and anti-leishmanial antibodies in(More)
Leptospirosis has been reported in rural areas of Brazil. However, there is limited information about the exposure risk or the risk of Leptospira infection for rural-based populations. A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence and risk factors for prior Leptospira infection in a rural subsistence farming region of the(More)
Genetic risk factors contribute to asymptomatic versus symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) outcomes following infection with Leishmania infantum. We therefore carried out a family-based (n = 918 post-quality control fully genotyped and phenotyped individuals) candidate gene study for symptomatic VL or asymptomatic delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH)(More)
Infection with the protozoan Leishmania infantum can lead to asymptomatic infection and protective immunity, or to the progressive and potentially fatal disease visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Published studies show host genetic background determines in part whether infected individuals will develop a symptomatic or asymptomatic outcome. The purpose of the(More)
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