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For the past 25 years, it has been known that alterations in DNA methylation (DNAm) occur in cancer, including hypomethylation of oncogenes and hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes. However, most studies of cancer methylation have assumed that functionally important DNAm will occur in promoters, and that most DNAm changes in cancer occur in CpG(More)
Inactivation of tumour suppressor genes is central to the development of all common forms of human cancer. This inactivation often results from epigenetic silencing associated with hypermethylation rather than intragenic mutations. In human cells, the mechanisms underlying locus-specific or global methylation patterns remain unclear. The prototypic DNA(More)
Tumour suppressor genes (TSGs) inhibiting normal cellular growth are frequently silenced epigenetically in cancer. DNA methylation is commonly associated with TSG silencing, yet mutations in the DNA methylation initiation and recognition machinery in carcinogenesis are unknown. An intriguing possible mechanism for gene regulation involves widespread(More)
CTCF, a conserved, ubiquitous, and highly versatile 11-zinc-finger factor involved in various aspects of gene regulation, forms methylation-sensitive insulators that regulate X chromosome inactivation and expression of imprinted genes. We document here the existence of a paralogous gene with the same exons encoding the 11-zinc-finger domain as mammalian(More)
CONTEXT Changes over time in epigenetic marks, which are modifications of DNA such as by DNA methylation, may help explain the late onset of common human diseases. However, changes in methylation or other epigenetic marks over time in a given individual have not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVES To determine whether there are longitudinal changes in(More)
Epigenetic alterations in human cancers include global DNA hypomethylation,gene hypomethylation and promoter hypermethylation, and loss of imprinting (LOI) of the insulin-like growth factor-II gene (IGF2). A mechanism for LOI described previously is hypermethylation of a differentially methylated region (DMR) upstream of the H19 gene, allowing activation of(More)
Loss of imprinting (LOI), an epigenetic alteration affecting the insulin-like growth factor II gene (IGF2), is found in normal colonic mucosa of about 30% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, but it is found in only 10% of healthy individuals. In a pilot study to investigate the utility of LOI as a marker of CRC risk, we evaluated 172 patients at a(More)
Alterations in DNA methylation (DNAm) in cancer have been known for 25 years, including hypomethylation of oncogenes and hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes1. However, most Users may view, print, copy, and download text and data-mine the content in such documents, for the purposes of academic research, subject always to the full Conditions of(More)
Loss of imprinting (LOI) is an epigenetic alteration of some cancers involving loss of parental origin-specific expression of imprinted genes. We observed LOI of the insulin-like growth factor-II gene in twelve of twenty-seven informative colorectal cancer patients (44%), as well as in the matched normal colonic mucosa of the patients with LOI in their(More)
In oligodendrocytes some mRNAs are transported from the perikaryon to the distal processes and localized in the myelin compartment where they are translated. This review describes the cis-acting signals and trans-acting factors that mediate intracellular trafficking of myelin basic protein (MBP) RNA, the prototype for such mRNAs in myelinating glia.