Learn More
The suspected link between infection by Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging flavivirus, and microcephaly is an urgent global health concern. The direct target cells of ZIKV in the developing human fetus are not clear. Here we show that a strain of the ZIKV, MR766, serially passaged in monkey and mosquito cells efficiently infects human neural progenitor cells(More)
Cerebral organoids, three-dimensional cultures that model organogenesis, provide a new platform to investigate human brain development. High cost, variability, and tissue heterogeneity limit their broad applications. Here, we developed a miniaturized spinning bioreactor (SpinΩ) to generate forebrain-specific organoids from human iPSCs. These organoids(More)
Cyclosporine (CsA) and its derivatives potently suppress hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Recently, CsA-resistant HCV replicons have been identified in vitro. We examined the dependence of the wild-type and CsA-resistant replicons on various cyclophilins for replication. A strong correlation between CsA resistance and reduced dependency on cyclophilin A(More)
Cyclosporine A and nonimmunosuppressive cyclophilin (Cyp) inhibitors such as Debio 025, NIM811, and SCY-635 block hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in vitro. This effect was recently confirmed in HCV-infected patients where Debio 025 treatment dramatically decreased HCV viral load, suggesting that Cyps inhibitors represent a novel class of anti-HCV(More)
HCV (hepatitis C virus) infects nearly 3% of the population worldwide and has emerged as a major causative agent of liver disease, resulting in acute and chronic infections that can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis C represents the leading cause of liver transplantation in the United States and Europe. A positive-strand(More)
Since the advent of genome-wide small interfering RNA screening, large numbers of cellular cofactors important for viral infection have been discovered at a rapid pace, but the viral targets and the mechanism of action for many of these cofactors remain undefined. One such cofactor is cyclophilin A (CyPA), upon which hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication(More)
Primary human hepatocytes isolated from patient biopsies represent the most physiologically relevant cell culture model for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but these primary cells are not readily accessible, display individual variability, and are largely refractory to genetic manipulation. Hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from pluripotent stem cells(More)
UNLABELLED Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to acute and chronic liver diseases, and new classes of anti-HCV therapeutics are needed. Cyclosporine A (CsA) inhibits HCV replication and CsA derivatives that lack the immunosuppressive function are currently in clinical trials as candidate anti-HCV drugs. Here we characterize several independently(More)
Although flaviviruses cause significant human diseases, no effective therapy is currently available. Host factors essential for viral replication are potential targets for antiviral development. Here we report that cyclophilins (CyPs), a family of cellular peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases), play a role in flavivirus replication. Huh-7.5 cells with(More)
In response to the current global health emergency posed by the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak and its link to microcephaly and other neurological conditions, we performed a drug repurposing screen of ∼6,000 compounds that included approved drugs, clinical trial drug candidates and pharmacologically active compounds; we identified compounds that either inhibit(More)