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Liquid-fed direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are one of the most promising candidates for portable power electronics and automotive applications due to their potentially high-energy density, simple storage, and distribution of the fuel. The concentration of methanol in the fuel circulation loop of a DMFC system is an important operating parameter, because(More)
Hybridization of fuel cells with additional batteries or ultracapacitors in a fuel cell vehicle reduces electrical and mechanical stresses on fuel cells and improves the overall drive train efficiency over a standard drive cycle. This paper primarily analyzes hybrid fuel cell vehicles with different drive train arrangements, and compares projected fuel(More)
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