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Protein phosphorylation is estimated to affect 30% of the proteome and is a major regulatory mechanism that controls many basic cellular processes. Until recently, our biochemical understanding of protein phosphorylation on a global scale has been extremely limited; only one half of the yeast kinases have known in vivo substrates and the phosphorylating(More)
Understanding how genes are expressed and regulated in different tissues is a fundamental and challenging question. However, most of currently available biological databases do not focus on tissue-specific gene regulation. The recent development of computational methods for tissue-specific combinational gene regulation, based on transcription factor binding(More)
DNA methylation has critical roles in the nervous system and has been traditionally considered to be restricted to CpG dinucleotides in metazoan genomes. Here we show that the single base-resolution DNA methylome from adult mouse dentate neurons consists of both CpG (~75%) and CpH (~25%) methylation (H = A/C/T). Neuronal CpH methylation is conserved in(More)
Lysine acetylation and its regulatory enzymes are known to have pivotal roles in mammalian cellular physiology. However, the extent and function of this modification in prokaryotic cells remain largely unexplored, thereby presenting a hurdle to further functional study of this modification in prokaryotic systems. Here we report the first global screening of(More)
Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) conduct many critical functions through nonhistone substrates in metazoans, but only chromatin-associated nonhistone substrates are known in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using yeast proteome microarrays, we identified and validated many nonchromatin substrates of the essential nucleosome(More)
Calcineurin is a Ca2+/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphatase required for Saccharomyces cerevisiae to respond to a variety of environmental stresses. Calcineurin promotes cell survival during stress by dephosphorylating and activating the Zn-finger transcription factor Crz1p/Tcn1p. Using a high-throughput assay, we screened 119 yeast kinases for their(More)
The long-term challenge of proteomics is enormous: to define the identities, quantities, structures and functions of complete complements of proteins, and to characterize how these properties vary in different cellular contexts. One critical step in tackling this goal is the generation of sets of clones that express a representative of each protein of a(More)
Microarray technology has become a crucial tool for large-scale and high-throughput biology. It allows fast, easy and parallel detection of thousands of addressable elements in a single experiment. In the past few years, protein microarray technology has shown its great potential in basic research, diagnostics and drug discovery. It has been applied to(More)
Thousands of different long non-coding RNAs are expressed during embryonic development, but the function of these molecules remains largely unexplored. Here we characterize the expression and function of Six3OS, a long non-coding RNA that is transcribed from the distal promoter region of the gene encoding the homeodomain transcription factor Six3.(More)
Due to the potent immunoregulatory capacity, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used in clinical trials to treat acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD), although the detailed in vivo mechanisms remain elusive. In a murine lethal aGvHD model, MSCs delayed the development of the disease. Interestingly, we found that MSC infusion increased the number of(More)