Hendrikus W. G. M. Boddeke

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Recent findings indicate that neurons are not merely passive targets of microglia but rather control microglial activity. The variety of different signals that neurons use to control microglia can be divided into two categories: 'Off' signals constitutively keep microglia in their resting state and antagonize proinflammatory activity. 'On' signals are(More)
Despite extensive study, few therapeutic targets have been identified for glioblastoma (GBM). Here we show that patient-derived glioma sphere cultures (GSCs) that resemble either the proneural (PN) or mesenchymal (MES) transcriptomal subtypes differ significantly in their biological characteristics. Moreover, we found that a subset of the PN GSCs undergoes(More)
Capsaicin activates a non-specific cation conductance in mammalian sensory neurones. If capsaicin is applied continuously or repeatedly then there is a progressive decline in responsiveness. We have studied the mechanism of this desensitization using electrophysiological methods in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurones from adult rats. The rate of(More)
In multiple sclerosis, endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) attempt to remyelinate areas of myelin damage. During disease progression, however, these attempts fail. It has been suggested that modulating the inflammatory environment of the lesion might provide a promising therapeutic approach to promote endogenous remyelination. Microglia are(More)
Microglia are the resident macrophage population of the CNS and are considered its major immunocompetent elements. They are activated by any type of brain pathology and can migrate to the lesion site. The chemokine CXCL10 is expressed in neurons in response to brain injury and is a signaling candidate for activating microglia and directing them to the(More)
Up-regulation of P2X4 receptors in spinal cord microglia is crucial for tactile allodynia, an untreatable pathological pain reaction occurring after peripheral nerve injury. How nerve injury in the periphery leads to this microglia reaction in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord is not yet understood. It is shown here that CCL21 was rapidly expressed in(More)
The immunological response in the brain is crucial to overcome neuropathological events. Some inflammatory mediators, such as the immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) affect neuromodulation and may also play protective roles against various noxious conditions. However, the fundamental mechanisms underlying the long-term effects of IL-6 in the(More)
Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS), chemokines are generally found under both physiological and(More)
Whenever neurons in the CNS are injured, microglia become activated. In addition to local activation, microglia remote from the primary lesion site are stimulated. Because this so-called secondary activation of microglia is instrumental for long-term changes after neuronal injury, it is important to understand how microglia activity is controlled. The(More)
During neuropathological conditions, high concentrations of adenosine are released, stimulating adenosine receptors in neurons and glial cells. It has recently been shown that stimulation of adenosine receptors in glial cells induces the release of neuroprotective substances such as NGF, S-100beta, and interleukin-6 (IL-6). It has therefore been suggested(More)