Hendrik W Steenland

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Neuropathic pain is caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system. Investigations have mainly focused on the spinal mechanisms of neuropathic pain, and less is known about cortical changes in neuropathic pain. Here, we report that peripheral nerve injury triggered long-term changes in excitatory synaptic transmission in layer II/III(More)
RATIONALE The concept of a tonic drive activating respiratory muscle in wakefulness but not sleep has been an important and enduring notion in respiratory medicine, not least because it is useful in modeling sleep effects on breathing and understanding the pathogenesis of sleep-related breathing disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea. However, a(More)
The level of excitation in the brain is kept under control through inhibitory signals mainly exerted by GABA neurons. However, the molecular machinery that regulates the balance between excitation and inhibition (E/I) remains unclear. Candidate molecules implicated in this process are neuroligin (NL) adhesion molecules, which are differentially enriched at(More)
Both presynaptic and postsynaptic alterations are associated with plastic changes of brain circuits, such as learning and memory, drug addiction and chronic pain. However, the dissection of the relative contributions of pre- and postsynaptic components to brain functions is difficult. We have previously shown peripheral inflammation caused both presynaptic(More)
Brainstem respiratory neurons innervate the hypoglossal motor nucleus which in turn transmits this respiratory drive signal to the genioglossus muscle of the tongue. The mechanism of this transmission is important to help maintain an open airspace for effective breathing, and is thought to rely almost exclusively on non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (non-NMDA)(More)
Conventional methodology for examining conditioned fear has involved visual-based technologies such as cameras and direct observation. These methods are excellent screening tools of fear behavior (i.e. freezing). However, they do not provide a physiological output, which could be useful to examine neurophysiological correlates of fear. We found that dorsal(More)
Two major approaches have been employed for the development of novel drugs to treat chronic pain. The most traditional approach identifies molecules involved in pain as potential therapeutic targets and has focused mainly on the periphery and spinal cord. A more recent approach identifies molecules that are involved in long-term plasticity. Drugs developed(More)
The functional role of GluR3 AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid) receptor subunits has remained elusive. In vitro studies of genetic knockout mice have not yielded significant alterations in synaptic communication. However, behavioural approaches utilizing knockout mice have shown that the subunit may be involved in exploration(More)
A variety of studies have implicated the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in fear, including permanent storage of fear memory. Recent pharmacological and genetic studies indicate that early synaptic plasticity in the ACC may also contribute to certain forms of fear memory at early time points. However, no study has directly examined the possible changes in(More)
The transmission of rhythmic drive to respiratory motoneurons in vitro is critically dependent on glutamate acting primarily on non-NMDA receptors. We determined whether both non-NMDA and NMDA receptors contribute to respiratory drive transmission at respiratory motoneurons in the intact organism, both in the state of anesthesia and in the same animals(More)