Learn More
This study was designed to compare the neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in neonates of methadone and buprenorphine maintained pregnant opioid-dependent women and to provide preliminary safety and efficacy data for a larger multi-center trial. This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, flexible dosing, parallel-group controlled trial was conducted in a(More)
Twenty-nine opioid-exposed and 26 nonopioid-exposed neonates received neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) assessment by an examiner blinded to group status twice daily over the first two postnatal days. The opioid-exposed group had higher mean NAS scores than the nonopioid-exposed group. A 3-sign index, consisting of hyperactive moro reflex, mild tremors(More)
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other Axis I comorbidity among women with substance use disorders (SUDs) appear similarly prevalent and are associated with comparable negative clinical profiles and treatment outcomes. The relative contribution of comorbid PTSD vs other Axis I psychiatric disorders to clinical characteristics is largely unexamined,(More)
BACKGROUND Methadone, a full mu-opioid agonist, is the recommended treatment for opioid dependence during pregnancy. However, prenatal exposure to methadone is associated with a neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) characterized by central nervous system hyperirritability and autonomic nervous system dysfunction, which often requires medication and extended(More)
It is estimated that 55-94% of infants born to opioid-dependent mothers in US will show signs of opioid withdrawal. Buprenorphine has been reported to produce little or no autonomic signs or symptoms of opioid withdrawal following abrupt termination in adults. To date, there have been 21 published reports representing approximately 15 evaluable cohorts of(More)
RATIONALE Epidemiological, clinical and pre-clinical observations suggest that caffeine can potentiate the reinforcing and discriminative effects of nicotine. OBJECTIVE The present study examined whether chronic exposure to moderate doses of caffeine affects the reinforcing and subjective effects of intravenously administered nicotine. METHODS The(More)
The subjective and physiological effects of intravenously administered cocaine and nicotine were compared in 10 cigarette-smoking cocaine abusers. Subjects abstained from smoking at least 8 h before each session. Under double blind conditions, subjects received placebo, cocaine (10, 20, and 40 mg/70 mg), or nicotine (0.75, 1.5, 3.0 mg/70 kg) in mixed order.(More)
RATIONALE Cessation of daily caffeine consumption produces a withdrawal syndrome comprised of subjective symptoms and functional impairment. Few controlled studies have examined the physiological effects of caffeine withdrawal. OBJECTIVE The present study examined the effect of caffeine withdrawal on cerebral blood flow velocity and quantitative EEG. (More)
RATIONALE There is little comparative information on the qualitative similarity, relative potency and reinforcing effects of oral cocaine versus cocaine administered via other routes. METHODS The present study used a within-subject, double-blind, double-dummy design to compare the physiological, subjective and reinforcing effects of placebo and oral(More)
Despite being widely available, outpatient detoxification has limited efficacy as a stand-alone treatment. This study examined whether abstinence-contingent incentives would improve outcomes for patients entering outpatient opiate detoxification. Participants (N = 211) received a 100 US dollars voucher on the last day of detoxification either contingent on(More)