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RATIONALE Epidemiological, clinical and pre-clinical observations suggest that caffeine can potentiate the reinforcing and discriminative effects of nicotine. OBJECTIVE The present study examined whether chronic exposure to moderate doses of caffeine affects the reinforcing and subjective effects of intravenously administered nicotine. METHODS The(More)
RATIONALE Cessation of daily caffeine consumption produces a withdrawal syndrome comprised of subjective symptoms and functional impairment. Few controlled studies have examined the physiological effects of caffeine withdrawal. OBJECTIVE The present study examined the effect of caffeine withdrawal on cerebral blood flow velocity and quantitative EEG. (More)
It has been shown that abused solvents, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE) and toluene, share certain pharmacological properties with central nervous system depressants, such as alcohol and anesthetic vapors. Several vapors were tested for diazepam (DZ)- and phencyclidine (PCP)-like discriminative stimulus effects to further explore their pharmacological(More)
RATIONALE There is little comparative information on the qualitative similarity, relative potency and reinforcing effects of oral cocaine versus cocaine administered via other routes. METHODS The present study used a within-subject, double-blind, double-dummy design to compare the physiological, subjective and reinforcing effects of placebo and oral(More)
The discriminative stimulus effects of GABAergic drugs were evaluated in rats trained to discriminate the direct GABA(A) agonist, muscimol (1.0 mg/kg I.P.), from saline under a two-lever fixed ratio (FR) 32 schedule of food reinforcement. Another direct GABA(A) agonist, THIP, produced full substitution for muscimol, however, at doses producing response rate(More)
Despite being widely available, outpatient detoxification has limited efficacy as a stand-alone treatment. This study examined whether abstinence-contingent incentives would improve outcomes for patients entering outpatient opiate detoxification. Participants (N = 211) received a 100 US dollars voucher on the last day of detoxification either contingent on(More)
This study examined an abstinence-contingent voucher incentive program in opiate-dependent clients enrolled in outpatient drug-free (nonmethadone) treatment. Study participants were referred from local detoxification programs and randomly assigned to voucher (n = 29) or no-voucher (n = 23) conditions. Both groups received intensive cognitive-behavioral(More)
Memantine (MEM) is currently in clinical use in Europe for the treatment of various neurological disorders. It is a low-affinity channel blocker of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors whose voltage-dependent, rapid binding kinetics are believed to limit its phencyclidine (PCP)-like side effects. MEM, and its analog amantadine (AMA), which has also been(More)
RATIONALE Although the behavioral, subjective, and physiological effects of oral cocaine have been investigated, its reinforcing effects have not been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE The primary aims of this study were to examine the reinforcing effects of oral cocaine and determine whether such effects can be influenced by manipulating behavioral requirements(More)
The subjective and physiological effects of intravenously administered cocaine and nicotine were compared in 10 cigarette-smoking cocaine abusers. Subjects abstained from smoking at least 8 h before each session. Under double blind conditions, subjects received placebo, cocaine (10, 20, and 40 mg/70 mg), or nicotine (0.75, 1.5, 3.0 mg/70 kg) in mixed order.(More)