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The subjective and physiological effects of intravenously administered cocaine and nicotine were compared in 10 cigarette-smoking cocaine abusers. Subjects abstained from smoking at least 8 h before each session. Under double blind conditions, subjects received placebo, cocaine (10, 20, and 40 mg/70 mg), or nicotine (0.75, 1.5, 3.0 mg/70 kg) in mixed order.(More)
It has been shown that abused solvents, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE) and toluene, share certain pharmacological properties with central nervous system depressants, such as alcohol and anesthetic vapors. Several vapors were tested for diazepam (DZ)- and phencyclidine (PCP)-like discriminative stimulus effects to further explore their pharmacological(More)
Rationale: Cessation of daily caffeine consumption produces a withdrawal syndrome comprised of subjective symptoms and functional impairment. Few controlled studies have examined the physiological effects of caffeine withdrawal. Objective: The present study examined the effect of caffeine withdrawal on cerebral blood flow velocity and quantitative EEG.(More)
This study was designed to compare the neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in neonates of methadone and buprenorphine maintained pregnant opioid-dependent women and to provide preliminary safety and efficacy data for a larger multi-center trial. This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, flexible dosing, parallel-group controlled trial was conducted in a(More)
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other Axis I comorbidity among women with substance use disorders (SUDs) appear similarly prevalent and are associated with comparable negative clinical profiles and treatment outcomes. The relative contribution of comorbid PTSD vs other Axis I psychiatric disorders to clinical characteristics is largely unexamined,(More)
Memantine (MEM) is currently in clinical use in Europe for the treatment of various neurological disorders. It is a low-affinity channel blocker of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors whose voltage-dependent, rapid binding kinetics are believed to limit its phencyclidine (PCP)-like side effects. MEM, and its analog amantadine (AMA), which has also been(More)
Rationale: Although the behavioral, subjective, and physiological effects of oral cocaine have been investigated, its reinforcing effects have not been demonstrated. Objective: The primary aims of this study were to examine the reinforcing effects of oral cocaine and determine whether such effects can be influenced by manipulating behavioral requirements(More)
The discriminative stimulus effects of GABAergic drugs were evaluated in rats trained to discriminate the direct GABA(A) agonist, muscimol (1.0 mg/kg I.P.), from saline under a two-lever fixed ratio (FR) 32 schedule of food reinforcement. Another direct GABA(A) agonist, THIP, produced full substitution for muscimol, however, at doses producing response rate(More)
BACKGROUND Methadone, a full mu-opioid agonist, is the recommended treatment for opioid dependence during pregnancy. However, prenatal exposure to methadone is associated with a neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) characterized by central nervous system hyperirritability and autonomic nervous system dysfunction, which often requires medication and extended(More)
In a group of 5 women on long-term anticonvulsant and oral contraceptive therapy, the plasma ethynylestradiol (EE) concentration on 50 microgram EE daily was 11.1 +/- 4.5 pg/ml. These values were at the lower end of the range found in normal women in this laboratory taking 30 microgram EE daily (6-190 pg/ml). Four women have been studied prospectively for 3(More)