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The present study is to investigate the brain activation associated with the informative value of negative feedback in rule acquisition. In each trial of a segmented Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, participants were provided with three reference cards and one target card, and were asked to match one of three reference cards to the target card based on a(More)
The neural mechanisms of rule learning are of interest to cognitive neuroscientists, but the time course of rule induction and the related brain potential remain unclear. In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured during the distinct phases of rule induction. Participants in two experiments were presented with a series of Arabic(More)
In this study, a short-term memory test was used to investigate the temporal course and neural mechanism of directed forgetting under different memory loads. Within each trial, two memory items with high or low load were presented sequentially, followed by a cue indicating whether the presented items should be remembered. After an interval, subjects were(More)
The present study aimed to investigate the subjective stress, salivary cortisol, and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress induced by a modified version of a mental arithmetic task. Fifteen participants were asked to estimate whether the multiplication product of two-decimal numbers was above 10 or not either with a time limit (the stress(More)
Process tomography (PT) has been widely investigated and developed to measure the cross-sectional distribution of multiphase flow parameters based on different sensing techniques in the past decades. Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is a relatively mature method for detecting solid particle concentration while electrostatic tomography(EST) is a new(More)
The present study aimed to measure the response inhibition by embedding a secondary probe task within a Go/NoGo paradigm. The response time for the probe and the time course of the discrimination process for the probe shown by event-related potentials were measured to investigate the effect of response inhibition. The results showed that the probe response(More)
It remains unclear whether number and unit are represented holistically (i.e. number and unit were processed as a whole) or compositionally (number and unit were processed separately) in the brain. The current study asked participants to compare price pairs with different monetary units that were presented serially. The close and far distances were defined(More)
This study aimed to investigate the effect of acute psychological stress on response inhibition and its electrophysiological correlates using a dual-task paradigm. Acute stress was induced by a primary task (mental arithmetic task), which consisted of a stress block and a control block. Response inhibition was measured using a secondary task (Go/NoGo task).(More)
Previous researches have shown that recognition accuracy is lower for items cued to-be-forgotten (TBF) than to-be-remembered (TBR). Does directed forgetting help people forget more items than non-directed forgetting? Here, we modified the directed forgetting paradigm by adding a non-cue condition (NC). Consequently, non-directed forgetting would occur in(More)
Previous studies have explored the neural mechanisms of spatial reasoning on a two-dimensional (2D) plane; however, it remains unclear how spatial reasoning is conducted in a three-dimensional (3D) condition. In the present study, we presented 3D geometric objects to 16 adult participants, and asked them to process the spatial relationship between different(More)