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BACKGROUND Acidosis-mediated injury to cardiac myocytes during surgery may lead to progressive heart failure. The nature of this injury, although not well defined, may be caused by induction of apoptosis in cardiac myocytes. We applied fluorescence imaging and biochemical techniques to assess apoptosis in cardiac myocytes excised from human patients and(More)
The endothelial isoform of NO synthase (eNOS) is targeted to sphingolipid-enriched signal-transducing microdomains in the plasma membrane termed caveolae. Among the caveolae-targeted sphingolipids are the ceramides, a class of acylated sphingosine compounds that have been implicated in diverse cellular responses. We have explored the role of ceramide(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS It has been proposed that nitrergic nerves mediate lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation with intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-IM) as an intermediary. Dysfunction of the nitrergic pathway has been shown to cause LES hypertension and impaired relaxation in achalasia. We determined whether mice with neuronal nitric(More)
Although estrogen is known to stimulate nitric oxide synthesis in vascular endothelium, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect remain to be elucidated. Using quantitative immunofluorescence imaging approaches, we have investigated the effect of estradiol on the subcellular targeting of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in bovine aortic(More)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the production of monoclonal immunoglobulin and is associated with suppressed uninvolved immunoglobulins and dysfunctional T-cell responses. The biologic basis of this dysfunction remains ill defined. Because T regulatory (T(reg)) cells play an important role in suppressing normal immune responses, we evaluated the(More)
The endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) is activated by transient increases in intracellular Ca2+ elicited by stimulation of diverse receptors, including bradykinin B2 receptors on endothelial cells. eNOS and B2 receptors are targeted to specialized signal-transducing domains in the plasma membrane termed plasmalemmal caveolae. Targeting to caveolae(More)
Exogenous electric fields induce cellular responses including redistribution of integral membrane proteins, reorganization of microfilament structures, and changes in intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i). Although increases in [Ca2+]i caused by application of direct current electric fields have been documented, quantitative measurements of the(More)
Prevention of intraoperative injury to the vascular endothelium is of primary importance in maintaining viability and patency of the aorto-coronary saphenous vein graft. Surgical manipulation, ischemia, storage conditions, and distension before anastomosis can abnormally alter the antithrombogenic property of the endothelium leading to vasospasms,(More)
Electrical stimulation has been used to promote wound healing. The mechanisms by which such stimulation could interact with biological systems to accelerate healing have not been elucidated. One potential mechanism could involve stimulation of macrophage migration to the site of a wound. Here we report that oscillatory electric fields induce human(More)
Many cell types and cellular microenvironments have been explored for articular cartilage tissue engineering. We compared the potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and P19 embryonic carcinoma cells (ECCs), a pluripotent derivative of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), for cartilage histogenesis in porous collagen scaffolds in vitro. We(More)