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Segmental duplications in the human genome are selectively enriched for genes involved in immunity, although the phenotypic consequences for host defense are unknown. We show that there are significant interindividual and interpopulation differences in the copy number of a segmental duplication encompassing the gene encoding CCL3L1 (MIP-1alphaP), a potent(More)
Originally recognized for their role in lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular disease, apolipoprotein (apo) E isoforms (apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4) have also been implicated to play a key role in several biological processes not directly related to their lipid transport function. For example, apoE4 contributes significantly to neurodegeneration in(More)
A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) suggested that polymorphisms in or around the genes HCP5, HLA-C and ZNRD1 confer restriction against HIV-1 viral replication or disease progression. Here, we also find that these alleles are associated with different aspects of HIV disease, albeit mainly in European Americans. Additionally, we offer that because(More)
BACKGROUND For over a decade, the importance of zinc in the treatment of acute and persistent diarrhea has been recognized. In spite of recently published reviews, there remain several unanswered questions about the role of zinc supplementation in childhood diarrhea in the developing countries. Our study aimed to assess the therapeutic benefits of zinc(More)
BACKGROUND Diarrhea causes an estimated 2.5 million child deaths in developing countries each year, 35% of which are due to acute diarrhea. Zinc and copper stores in the body are known to be depleted during acute diarrhea. Our objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of zinc and copper supplementation when given with standard treatment to children with(More)
Several studies have identified effects of genetic variation on DNA methylation patterns and associated heritability, with research primarily focused on Caucasian individuals. In this paper, we examine the evidence for genetic effects on DNA methylation in a Mexican American cohort, a population burdened by a high prevalence of obesity. Using an(More)
BACKGROUND The impact of viral load (VL) decay and cumulative VL on CD4 recovery and AIDS after highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS Three virologic kinetic parameters (first year and overall exponential VL decay constants, and first year VL slope) and cumulative VL during HAART were estimated for 2,278 patients(More)
Zinc supplementation is recommended in all acute diarrheas in children from developing countries. We aimed to assess whether zinc supplementation would be equally effective against all the common organisms associated with acute diarrheas. We used data on 801 children with acute diarrhea recruited in a randomized, double blind controlled trial(More)
BACKGROUND Polymorphisms in CCR5, the major coreceptor for HIV, and CCL3L1, a potent CCR5 ligand and HIV-suppressive chemokine, are determinants of HIV-AIDS susceptibility. Here, we mathematically modeled the potential impact of these genetic factors on the epidemic spread of HIV, as well as on its prevention. METHODS AND RESULTS Ro, the basic(More)
BACKGROUND The Duffy-null trait and ethnic netropenia are both highly prevalent in Africa. The influence of pre-seroconversion levels of peripheral blood cell counts (PBCs) on the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection among Africans is unknown. METHODS The triangular relationship among pre-seroconversion PBC counts, host(More)