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A genome-wide association (GWA) study with pooled DNA in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) employing ~500K SNP markers identifies novel risk genes and reveals remarkable overlap with findings from recent GWA scans in substance use disorders. Comparison with results from our previously reported high-resolution linkage scan in extended(More)
BACKGROUND Neurostimulation of the subthalamic nucleus reduces levodopa-related motor complications in advanced Parkinson's disease. We compared this treatment plus medication with medical management. METHODS In this randomized-pairs trial, we enrolled 156 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and severe motor symptoms. The primary end points were(More)
We recently described an association between risk of type 2diabetes and variants in the transcription factor 7-like 2 gene (TCF7L2; formerly TCF4), with a population attributable risk (PAR) of 17%-28% in three populations of European ancestry. Here, we refine the definition of the TCF7L2 type 2diabetes risk variant, HapB(T2D), to the ancestral T allele of a(More)
BACKGROUND To our knowledge, verum acupuncture has never been directly compared with sham acupuncture and guideline-based conventional therapy in patients with chronic low back pain. METHODS A patient- and observer-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted in Germany involving 340 outpatient practices, including 1162 patients aged 18 to 86 years (mean(More)
Meta-analyses of population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have recently led to the detection of new genetic loci for obesity. Here we aimed to discover additional obesity loci in extremely obese children and adolescents. We also investigated if these results generalize by estimating the effects of these obesity loci in adults and in(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity is a major health problem. Although heritability is substantial, genetic mechanisms predisposing to obesity are not very well understood. We have performed a genome wide association study (GWA) for early onset (extreme) obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS a) GWA (Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 5.0 comprising 440,794 single nucleotide(More)
Ghrelin induces obesity via central and peripheral mechanisms. Administration of ghrelin leads to increased food intake and decreased fat utilisation in rodents. Ghrelin levels are decreased in obese individuals. Recently, a polymorphism (Arg-51-Gln) within the ghrelin gene (GHRL) was described to be associated with obesity. We screened the GHRL coding(More)
CONTEXT Autosomal dominant inheritance of mutations in the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) is currently regarded as the most relevant genetic cause for extreme obesity and affects 2-4% of extremely obese individuals. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to assess the relevance of MC4R mutations in a German population-based sample. DESIGN AND SETTING We(More)
OBJECTIVE Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genomewide association studies (GWAS) are needed. METHOD We used case-control analyses of 896 cases with DSM-IV(More)
OBJECTIVE Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. As prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yielded significant results, we conducted a meta-analysis of existing(More)