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In the experiments reviewed in this article the subjects are asked to produce ideas that are relevant to a given task request (e.g., possible consequences of a hypothetical event). After describing the specific task material and the performance measures used in the relevant research studies, some analytic background is given by outlining the cognitive(More)
This longitudinal study was designed to test hypotheses concerning the influence of environmental changes in different groups (educational status; sex) of adolescents on their future orientation (FO). FO was measured through a free-response questionnaire on which the subjects indicated their hopes and fears (which were later categorized into various domains(More)
Hypotheses concerning the effects of sex and class On future orientation were tested on 100 boys and girls between the ages of 14 and 16. Future orientation was measured in various domains of life, constituting either private or public areas of concern (e.g., family, environment), on the dimensions of density (number oi hopes and fears voiced by the(More)
  • Helmut Lamm, GISELA TROiv1MSDORFF, EDITH ROST-SCHAUDE
  • 2007
HELMUT LAMM GISELA TROiv1MSDORFF EDITH ROST-SCHAUDE University of Mannheim Twelve four-person female groups of subjects displaying the typical underestimation of their peers' (relative to their own) risk acceptance were compared with twelve groups of subjects who (slightly) overestimated their peers' risk acceptance. Risk level was measured by responses to(More)
-A review of evidence from a number of experiments suggests that as a result of discussion the average of the group members' positions (attitudes, judgments) becomes more extreme. These shifts seem to occur primarily when group members' initial positions are distributed across the two sides of the scale in such a way as to create a majority-minority(More)
This study examined the effects of status held in a reference group and of prior issue commitment on the risky shift and other negotiation outcomes under conditions where accountability to the reference group during negotiation had been enhanced by having high and low status members observe each other. Following assessment of individual risk preferences on(More)