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We identify the dynamics of an atomic force microscope ͑AFM͒ in order to design a feedback controller that enables faster image acquisition at reduced imaging error compared to the now generally employed proportional integral differential ͑PID͒ controllers. First, a force model for the tip–sample interaction in an AFM is used to show that the dynamic(More)
During the last decade, various efforts have been undertaken to enhance the resolution of optical microscopes, mostly because of their importance in biological sciences. Herein, we describe a method to increase the resolution of fluorescence microscopy by illuminating the specimen with a mesh-like interference pattern of a laser source and electronic(More)
A method for increasing lateral as well as axial resolution in fluorescence microscopy is presented. A passband with a high cutoff frequency throughout reciprocal space can be achieved by illumination of the object with spatially harmonic excitation patterns generated by the interference of two collimated laser beams. Theoretical calculations show an almost(More)
A simple method for rendering atomic force microscope tips and cantilevers hydrophilic or hydrophobic through glow discharge in an appropriate gas atmosphere is introduced. Force curves at different humidities of these modified cantilevers were taken on freshly cleaved mica (hydrophilic surface) and on a monolayer of dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine(More)
Mechanical loading has been implicated as a powerful driving mechanism for interstitial fluid flow through bone. However, little information is available with regard to the morphology of bone fluid spaces, e.g., the canalicular wall, which would be expected to dictate the type of flow regime developing in the lacunocanalicular system under mechanical loads.(More)
Several preparation methods were developed to investigate the dimensions and surface structure of fluid spaces within cortical bone, using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Of special interest was the morphology of the lacunocanalicular system, which serves as a conduit between osteocytes encased in bone tissue, the intramedullary cavity, blood vessels running(More)
The global demand for the reduction of animal testing has led to the emergence of Zebrafish eggs/larvae as model organisms to replace current adult animal testing in, for example, toxicity testing. Because of the egg size (diameter 1.6mm) and the relatively easy maintenance of Zebrafish farms the eggs also offer high-throughput screening (HTS). However, the(More)
Scanning tunneling microscopy is based on the flow of an electrical current and thus cannot be used to directly image insulating material. It has been found, however, that a very thin film of water (about one monolayer) adsorbed to a surface exhibits a surprisingly high conductivity that is sufficient to allow scanning tunneling microscope imaging at(More)
Self-assembly is a key coordination mechanism for large multi-unit systems and a powerful bottom-up technology for micro/nanofabrication. Controlled self-assembly and dynamic reconfiguration of large ensembles of microscopic particles can effectively bridge these domains to build innovative systems. In this perspective, we present SelfSys, a novel platform(More)
A hybrid scanning transmission electron/scanning tunneling microscope vacuum system is introduced, which allows freeze drying and metal coating of biological samples and their simultaneous observation by scanning transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). Different metal coatings and STM tips were analysed to obtain the(More)