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BACKGROUND There is no consensus method for determining progression of disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) when each patient has had only a single assessment in the course of the disease. METHODS Using data from two large longitudinal databases, the authors tested whether cross-sectional disability assessments are representative of disease(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disabling inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that primarily affects young adults. Available therapies can inhibit the inflammatory component of MS but do not suppress progressive clinical disability. An alternative approach would be to inhibit mechanisms that drive the neuropathology of MS,(More)
BACKGROUND Adequate 25(OH)D levels are required to prevent adverse effects on bone health. Population-based data on factors associated with 25(OH)D levels of people with MS have been lacking. OBJECTIVES To examine the prevalence and determinants of vitamin D insufficiency in a population-based sample of MS cases and controls, and to compare 25(OH)D status(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially(More)
Recently, there has been strong interest in the development of imaging techniques to quantify axonal and myelin pathology in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Optic neuritis, a condition characterised by inflammatory demyelination of the optic nerve, is one of the commonest sites of MS relapse, and exhibits similar pathological alterations to MS(More)
Activation of the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor has been reported to promote gliogenesis and also to support neural stem cell (NSC) renewal. To investigate this paradox, we isolated NSCs and generated neurospheres from embryonic mice either wild-type, heterozygous, or homozygous null for LIF receptor (LIFR)-beta. Exogenous LIF abrogated(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether past high sun exposure is associated with a reduced risk of multiple sclerosis. DESIGN Population based case-control study. SETTING Tasmania, latitudes 41-3 degrees S. PARTICIPANTS 136 cases with multiple sclerosis and 272 controls randomly drawn from the community and matched on sex and year of birth. MAIN OUTCOME(More)
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor signaling limits the severity of inflammatory demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a T-cell dependent animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS) [Butzkueven et al. (2002) Nat Med 8:613-619]. To identify whether LIF exerts direct effects within the central nervous system to limit demyelination, we(More)
The TAM family of receptor protein tyrosine kinases comprises three known members, namely Tyro3, Axl, and Mer. These receptors are widely expressed in the nervous system, including by oligodendrocytes, the cell type responsible for myelinating the CNS. We examined the potential role of the TAM family and of their principle cognate ligand, Gas6 (growth(More)
Schwann cell death is a developmentally regulated phenomenon and is also induced after peripheral nerve axotomy in neonatal rodents. In this study, we explored whether ligand-induced activation of the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) is responsible for inducing Schwann cell death in vivo. Administration of exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) to(More)