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BACKGROUND There is no consensus method for determining progression of disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) when each patient has had only a single assessment in the course of the disease. METHODS Using data from two large longitudinal databases, the authors tested whether cross-sectional disability assessments are representative of disease(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disabling inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that primarily affects young adults. Available therapies can inhibit the inflammatory component of MS but do not suppress progressive clinical disability. An alternative approach would be to inhibit mechanisms that drive the neuropathology of MS,(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether past high sun exposure is associated with a reduced risk of multiple sclerosis. DESIGN Population based case-control study. SETTING Tasmania, latitudes 41-3 degrees S. PARTICIPANTS 136 cases with multiple sclerosis and 272 controls randomly drawn from the community and matched on sex and year of birth. MAIN OUTCOME(More)
BACKGROUND Adequate 25(OH)D levels are required to prevent adverse effects on bone health. Population-based data on factors associated with 25(OH)D levels of people with MS have been lacking. OBJECTIVES To examine the prevalence and determinants of vitamin D insufficiency in a population-based sample of MS cases and controls, and to compare 25(OH)D status(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially(More)
This study evaluated the gait and balance performance of two clinically distinct groups of recently diagnosed and minimally impaired multiple sclerosis (MS) patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale range 0-2.5), compared to control subjects. Ten MS patients with mild pyramidal signs (Pyramidal Functional Systems 1.0), 10 MS patients with no pyramidal(More)
Recently, there has been strong interest in the development of imaging techniques to quantify axonal and myelin pathology in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Optic neuritis, a condition characterised by inflammatory demyelination of the optic nerve, is one of the commonest sites of MS relapse, and exhibits similar pathological alterations to MS(More)
Activation of the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor has been reported to promote gliogenesis and also to support neural stem cell (NSC) renewal. To investigate this paradox, we isolated NSCs and generated neurospheres from embryonic mice either wild-type, heterozygous, or homozygous null for LIF receptor (LIFR)-beta. Exogenous LIF abrogated(More)
Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether onset seizures after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) carry independent prognostic information and to investigate the risk factors for late seizures after SAH. BACKGROUND Modern management of SAH, including early operation, has substantially reduced mortality. No study has adequately assessed the importance of onset seizures in(More)