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Freeze-fracture replicas demonstrate that the apical membrane of the chloride cells of young adult lampreys (Geotria australis) undergoes a structural change when the animal is acclimated from freshwater to seawater. Although the particles on both the P face and the E face of this membrane are randomly distributed in freshwater animals, they are usually(More)
TonEBP/NFAT5 is a major regulator of the urinary concentrating process and is essential for the osmoadaptation of renal medullary cells. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a mechanosensitive non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase expressed abundantly in the renal medulla. Since osmotic stress causes cell shrinkage, the present study investigated the contribution(More)
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the changes that occur in the morphological relationships between chloride and pavement cells in the gills during acclimation of young adult lampreys to seawater. Because chloride cells are located predominantly between lamellae and are thus obscured from view, the lamellae were removed with the use of a(More)
Automation of wet chemical analytical procedures, particularly titration, photometry and chromatography, have wide application in industrial laboratories. Very often some sample pretreatment must be carried out to transfer the sample into a suitable state for the measurement or chromatographic process. In industrial analysis, samples are very often solids(More)
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