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It is a common observation that exertion of effort is associated with a specific facial expression. However, this facial expression has never been quantified during physical tasks and its relationship with effort is unknown. The aims of the present study were to measure frowning muscle activity during a physical task with electromyography (EMG) and to(More)
Locomotor muscle fatigue, defined as an exercise-induced reduction in maximal voluntary force, occurs during prolonged exercise, but its effects on cardiorespiratory responses and exercise performance are unknown. In this investigation, a significant reduction in locomotor muscle force (-18%, P < 0.05) was isolated from the metabolic stress usually(More)
It is thought that perception of effort during physical tasks is the conscious awareness of the central motor command sent to the active muscles. The aim of this study was to directly test this hypothesis by experimentally varying perception of effort and measuring movement-related cortical potential (MRCP). Sixteen healthy, recreationally active men made(More)
Caffeine intake results in a decrease in perception of effort, but the cortical substrates of this perceptual effect of caffeine are unknown. The aim of this randomized counterbalanced double-blind crossover study was to investigate the effect of caffeine on the motor-related cortical potential (MRCP) and its relationship with rating of perceived effort(More)
Locomotor muscle fatigue impairs exercise performance during time to exhaustion tests. However, its effect on self-regulation of power output (pacing) is unknown. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of locomotor muscle fatigue on pacing and time trial performance. Ten healthy recreationally active men completed a 15-min time trial(More)
We have recently demonstrated that electromyogram (EMG) amplitude of the frowning muscles correlates with perception of effort during leg-extension exercise. However, during aerobic exercise the relationship between facial EMG and perception of effort has never been investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether facial EMG reflects(More)
Psychological distress can trigger acute coronary syndromes and sudden cardiac death in vulnerable patients. The primary pathophysiological mechanism that plays a role in stress-induced cardiac events involves the autonomic nervous system, particularly disproportional sympathetic activation and parasympathetic withdrawal. This article describes the relation(More)
BACKGROUND The insula is an essential component of the central autonomic network and plays a critical role in autonomic regulation in response to environmental stressors. The role of the insula in human autonomic regulation has been primarily investigated following cerebrovascular accidents, but interpretation of these findings is complicated by lack of(More)
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