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Neurons are metabolically handicapped in the sense that they are not able to perform de novo synthesis of neurotransmitter glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from glucose. A metabolite shuttle known as the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle describes the release of neurotransmitter glutamate or GABA from neurons and subsequent uptake into astrocytes.(More)
Protoplasmic astrocytes are critically important to energy metabolism in the CNS. Our current understanding of the metabolic interactions between neurons and glia is based on studies using cultured cells, from which mainly inferential conclusions have been drawn as to the relative roles of neurons and glia in brain metabolism. In this study, we used(More)
The malate-aspartate shuttle and the glycerol phosphate shuttle act to transfer reducing equivalents from NADH in the cytosol to the mitochondria since the inner mitochondrial membrane is impermeable to NADH and NAD+. This transfer of reducing equivalents is essential for maintaining a favorable NAD+/NADH ratio required for the oxidative metabolism of(More)
The significance and functional roles of glycogen shunt activity in the brain are largely unknown. It represents the fraction of metabolized glucose that passes through glycogen molecules prior to entering the glycolytic pathway. The present study was aimed at elucidating this pathway in cultured astrocytes from mouse exposed to agents such as a high [K+],(More)
The pharmacological properties of 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB), a potent inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase and synthase activity in liver preparations, were characterized in different brain tissue preparations as a prerequisite for using it as a tool to investigate brain glycogen metabolism. Its inhibitory effect on glycogen phosphorylase was(More)
GABA, which is present in the brain in large amounts, is distributed among distinctly different cellular pools, possibly reflecting its multiple functions as metabolite, neurotransmitter, and neurotrophin. Its metabolic enzymes also exhibit heterogeneity, because glutamate decarboxylase exists in two isoforms with different subcellular distribution and(More)
Glutamate and GABA are the quantitatively major neurotransmitters in the brain mediating excitatory and inhibitory signaling, respectively. These amino acids are metabolically interrelated and at the same time they are tightly coupled to the intermediary metabolism including energy homeostasis. Astrocytes play a pivotal role in the maintenance of the(More)
Glutamate homeostasis in the brain is maintained by its well balanced release, uptake and metabolism. It appears that astrocytes play a prominent role in this context since they possess a very powerful battery of glutamate transporters. Thus, malfunction of astrocytic glutamate transporters will lead to an excessively high extracellular glutamate(More)
GABA exists in at least two different intracellular pools, i.e., a cytoplasmic or metabolic pool and a vesicular pool. This study was performed to gain information about the quantitative role of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in biosynthesis of GABA from glutamine when GABA was selectively released from either one of these two pools. Cultured cerebral(More)
The fine tuning of both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission is to a large extent dependent upon optimal function of astrocytic transport processes. Thus, glutamate transport in astrocytes is mandatory to maintain extrasynaptic glutamate levels sufficiently low to prevent excitotoxic neuronal damage. In GABA synapses hyperactivity of astroglial(More)