Helle Sønderby Waagepetersen

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Neurons are metabolically handicapped in the sense that they are not able to perform de novo synthesis of neurotransmitter glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from glucose. A metabolite shuttle known as the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle describes the release of neurotransmitter glutamate or GABA from neurons and subsequent uptake into astrocytes.(More)
Protoplasmic astrocytes are critically important to energy metabolism in the CNS. Our current understanding of the metabolic interactions between neurons and glia is based on studies using cultured cells, from which mainly inferential conclusions have been drawn as to the relative roles of neurons and glia in brain metabolism. In this study, we used(More)
The malate-aspartate shuttle and the glycerol phosphate shuttle act to transfer reducing equivalents from NADH in the cytosol to the mitochondria since the inner mitochondrial membrane is impermeable to NADH and NAD+. This transfer of reducing equivalents is essential for maintaining a favorable NAD+/NADH ratio required for the oxidative metabolism of(More)
Glutamate and GABA are the quantitatively major neurotransmitters in the brain mediating excitatory and inhibitory signaling, respectively. These amino acids are metabolically interrelated and at the same time they are tightly coupled to the intermediary metabolism including energy homeostasis. Astrocytes play a pivotal role in the maintenance of the(More)
The significance and functional roles of glycogen shunt activity in the brain are largely unknown. It represents the fraction of metabolized glucose that passes through glycogen molecules prior to entering the glycolytic pathway. The present study was aimed at elucidating this pathway in cultured astrocytes from mouse exposed to agents such as a high [K+],(More)
Although the brain utilizes glucose for energy production, individual brain cells may to some extent utilize substrates derived from glucose. Thus, it has been suggested that neurons consume extracellular lactate during synaptic activity. However, the precise role of lactate for fueling neuronal activity is still poorly understood. Recently, we demonstrated(More)
Glutamate homeostasis in the brain is maintained by its well balanced release, uptake and metabolism. It appears that astrocytes play a prominent role in this context since they possess a very powerful battery of glutamate transporters. Thus, malfunction of astrocytic glutamate transporters will lead to an excessively high extracellular glutamate(More)
Glutamatergic neurotransmission accounts for a considerable part of energy consumption related to signaling in the brain. Chemical energy is provided by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formed in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle combined with oxidative phosphorylation. It is not clear whether ATP generated in these pathways is equivalent in(More)
GABA, which is present in the brain in large amounts, is distributed among distinctly different cellular pools, possibly reflecting its multiple functions as metabolite, neurotransmitter, and neurotrophin. Its metabolic enzymes also exhibit heterogeneity, because glutamate decarboxylase exists in two isoforms with different subcellular distribution and(More)
The metabolism of [U-(13)C]lactate (1 mM) in the presence of unlabeled glucose (2.5 mM) was investigated in glutamatergic cerebellar granule cells, cerebellar astrocytes, and corresponding co-cultures. It was evident that lactate is primarily a neuronal substrate and that lactate produced glycolytically from glucose in astrocytes serves as a substrate in(More)