Helle Sønderby Waagepetersen

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Neurons are metabolically handicapped in the sense that they are not able to perform de novo synthesis of neurotransmitter glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from glucose. A metabolite shuttle known as the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle describes the release of neurotransmitter glutamate or GABA from neurons and subsequent uptake into astrocytes.(More)
Protoplasmic astrocytes are critically important to energy metabolism in the CNS. Our current understanding of the metabolic interactions between neurons and glia is based on studies using cultured cells, from which mainly inferential conclusions have been drawn as to the relative roles of neurons and glia in brain metabolism. In this study, we used(More)
The malate-aspartate shuttle and the glycerol phosphate shuttle act to transfer reducing equivalents from NADH in the cytosol to the mitochondria since the inner mitochondrial membrane is impermeable to NADH and NAD+. This transfer of reducing equivalents is essential for maintaining a favorable NAD+/NADH ratio required for the oxidative metabolism of(More)
Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia. In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been(More)
The significance and functional roles of glycogen shunt activity in the brain are largely unknown. It represents the fraction of metabolized glucose that passes through glycogen molecules prior to entering the glycolytic pathway. The present study was aimed at elucidating this pathway in cultured astrocytes from mouse exposed to agents such as a high [K+],(More)
Glutamate homeostasis in the brain is maintained by its well balanced release, uptake and metabolism. It appears that astrocytes play a prominent role in this context since they possess a very powerful battery of glutamate transporters. Thus, malfunction of astrocytic glutamate transporters will lead to an excessively high extracellular glutamate(More)
The fine tuning of both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission is to a large extent dependent upon optimal function of astrocytic transport processes. Thus, glutamate transport in astrocytes is mandatory to maintain extrasynaptic glutamate levels sufficiently low to prevent excitotoxic neuronal damage. In GABA synapses hyperactivity of astroglial(More)
The pharmacological properties of 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB), a potent inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase and synthase activity in liver preparations, were characterized in different brain tissue preparations as a prerequisite for using it as a tool to investigate brain glycogen metabolism. Its inhibitory effect on glycogen phosphorylase was(More)
A novel inhibitor of liver glycogen phosphorylase, isofagomine, was investigated as a possible inhibitor of the enzyme in the brain and in cultured astrocytes. Additionally, the effect of the drug on norepinephrine (NE) induced glycogen degradation in astrocytes was studied. Astrocytes were cultured from mouse cerebral cortex and homogenates were prepared(More)
Studies in different preparations of neurons and astrocytes of alanine transport and activities of its metabolizing enzyme alanine aminotransferase have led to the proposal that this amino acid is preferentially synthesized in astrocytes and transferred from the astrocytic to the neuronal compartment. From a functional point of view this may well be the(More)