Learn More
Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia. In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been(More)
The pharmacological properties of 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB), a potent inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase and synthase activity in liver preparations, were characterized in different brain tissue preparations as a prerequisite for using it as a tool to investigate brain glycogen metabolism. Its inhibitory effect on glycogen phosphorylase was(More)
The involvement of brain glycogen in sustaining neuronal activity has previously been demonstrated. However, to what extent energy derived from glycogen is consumed by astrocytes themselves or is transferred to the neurons in the form of lactate for oxidative metabolism to proceed is at present unclear. The significance of glycogen in fueling glutamate(More)
Brain glycogen metabolism was investigated by employing isofagomine, an inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase. Cultured cerebellar and neocortical astrocytes were incubated in medium containing [U-(13C)]glucose in the absence or presence of isofagomine and the amounts and percent labeling of intra- and extracellular metabolites were determined by mass(More)
Glutamatergic neurotransmission accounts for a considerable part of energy consumption related to signaling in the brain. Chemical energy is provided by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formed in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle combined with oxidative phosphorylation. It is not clear whether ATP generated in these pathways is equivalent in(More)
The number of people suffering from diabetes is hastily increasing and the condition is associated with altered brain glucose homeostasis. Brain glycogen is located in astrocytes and being a carbohydrate reservoir it contributes to glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, glycogen has been indicated to be important for proper neurotransmission under normal(More)
We tested the hypothesis that inhibiting glycogen degradation accelerates compound action potential (CAP) failure in mouse optic nerve (MON) during aglycemia or high-intensity stimulation. Axon function was assessed as the evoked CAP, and glycogen content was measured biochemically. Isofagomine, a novel inhibitor of central nervous system (CNS) glycogen(More)
It has been proposed that a considerable fraction of glucose metabolism proceeds via the glycogen-shunt consisting of conversion of glucose units to glycogen residues and subsequent production of glucose-1-phosphate to be metabolized in glycolysis after conversion to glucose-6-phosphate. The importance of this as well as the significance of ATP formed in(More)
The glutamate-glutamine cycle describes the neuronal release of glutamate into the synaptic cleft, astrocytic uptake, and conversion into glutamine, followed by release for use as a neuronal glutamate precursor. This only explains the fate of the carbon atoms, however, and not that of the ammonia. Recently, a role for alanine has been proposed in transfer(More)
Exercise can have many benefits for the body, but it also benefits the brain by increasing neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and performance on learning and memory tasks. The period of exercise needed to realize the structural and functional benefits for the brain have not been well delineated, and previous studies have used periods of exercise exposure(More)