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The involvement of brain glycogen in sustaining neuronal activity has previously been demonstrated. However, to what extent energy derived from glycogen is consumed by astrocytes themselves or is transferred to the neurons in the form of lactate for oxidative metabolism to proceed is at present unclear. The significance of glycogen in fueling glutamate(More)
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is deleterious to the developing brain of the fetus and leads to persistent deficits in adulthood. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a biological model for learning and memory processes and previous evidence has shown that prenatal ethanol exposure (PNEE) affects LTP in a sex specific manner during adolescence. The(More)
Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia. In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been(More)
The pharmacological properties of 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB), a potent inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase and synthase activity in liver preparations, were characterized in different brain tissue preparations as a prerequisite for using it as a tool to investigate brain glycogen metabolism. Its inhibitory effect on glycogen phosphorylase was(More)
Exercise can have many benefits for the body, but it also benefits the brain by increasing neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and performance on learning and memory tasks. The period of exercise needed to realize the structural and functional benefits for the brain have not been well delineated, and previous studies have used periods of exercise exposure(More)
We tested the hypothesis that inhibiting glycogen degradation accelerates compound action potential (CAP) failure in mouse optic nerve (MON) during aglycemia or high-intensity stimulation. Axon function was assessed as the evoked CAP, and glycogen content was measured biochemically. Isofagomine, a novel inhibitor of central nervous system (CNS) glycogen(More)
Obesity and type 2 diabetes have reached epidemic proportions; however, scarce information about how these metabolic syndromes influence brain energy and neurotransmitter homeostasis exist. The objective of this study was to elucidate how brain glycogen and neurotransmitter homeostasis are affected by these conditions. [1-(13)C]glucose was administered to(More)
The glutamate-glutamine cycle describes the neuronal release of glutamate into the synaptic cleft, astrocytic uptake, and conversion into glutamine, followed by release for use as a neuronal glutamate precursor. This only explains the fate of the carbon atoms, however, and not that of the ammonia. Recently, a role for alanine has been proposed in transfer(More)
Brain glycogen metabolism was investigated by employing isofagomine, an inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase. Cultured cerebellar and neocortical astrocytes were incubated in medium containing [U-13C]glucose in the absence or presence of isofagomine and the amounts and percent labeling of intra- and extracellular metabolites were determined by mass(More)
Glutamatergic neurotransmission accounts for a considerable part of energy consumption related to signaling in the brain. Chemical energy is provided by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formed in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle combined with oxidative phosphorylation. It is not clear whether ATP generated in these pathways is equivalent in(More)