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Francisella tularensis is an obligate, intracellular bacterium that causes acute, lethal disease following inhalation. As an intracellular pathogen F. tularensis must invade cells, replicate, and disseminate while evading host immune responses. The mechanisms by which virulent type A strains of Francisella tularensis accomplish this evasion are not(More)
Maternal hypoxia is a common perturbation that can disrupt placental and thus fetal development, contributing to neonatal impairments. Recently, evidence has suggested that physiological outcomes are dependent upon the sex of the fetus, with males more susceptible to hypoxic insults than females. This study investigated the effects of maternal hypoxia(More)
Tuberculous latency and reactivation play a significant role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, yet the mechanisms that regulate these processes remain unclear. The Mycobacterium tuberculosisuniversal stress protein (USP) homolog, rv2623, is among the most highly induced genes when the tubercle bacillus is subjected to hypoxia and nitrosative stress,(More)
Five groups of range bred calves (four calves per group) were used to investigate the effect of stress on susceptibility to aerosol exposures with bovine herpesvirus-1 or Pasteurella haemolytica. Twelve calves were weaned, transported, processed at a commercial feedlot and transported to isolation facilities three days later. An aerosol challenge of either(More)
Schistosomes feed on human blood. They employ proteases to degrade hemoglobin from ingested erythrocytes, using the residues released for amino acid metabolism. However, the identity and the role of the participating protease(s) are unclear and controversial. Confocal microscopy localized schistosomal cathepsin D to the parasite gastrodermis, and revealed(More)
Melioidosis is a disease of humans caused by opportunistic infection with the soil and water bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis can manifest as an acute, overwhelming infection or as a chronic, recurrent infection. At present, it is not clear where B. pseudomallei resides in the mammalian host during the chronic, recurrent phase of infection.(More)
BACKGROUND Blastocystis species are common human enteric parasites. Carriage has been linked to Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Treatment of Blastocystis spp. with antimicrobials is problematic and insensitive diagnostic methods and re-infection complicate assessment of eradication. We investigated whether triple antibiotic therapy comprising diloxanide(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding of scabies immunopathology has been hampered by the inability to undertake longitudinal studies in humans. Pigs are a useful animal model for scabies, and show clinical and immunologic changes similar to those in humans. Crusted scabies can be readily established in pigs by treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex). (More)
Blastocystis, an intestinal protist commonly found in humans and animals worldwide, has been implicated by some as a causative agent in irritable bowel syndrome in humans. In pigs, infection with Blastocystis is commonly reported, with most pigs shown to harbour subtypes (ST) 1 or 5, suggesting that these animals are potentially natural hosts for(More)
A mAb EBM11, raised against human macrophages [M phi] was found to detect a bovine M phi diameter-subpopulation. The Ag was strictly intracellular and was expressed in M phi only at a certain state of maturation. Its expression was regulated independently of the activation state of the cells, as revealed by treating M phi in vitro with bovine rIFN-alpha I1,(More)