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Francisella tularensis is an obligate, intracellular bacterium that causes acute, lethal disease following inhalation. As an intracellular pathogen F. tularensis must invade cells, replicate, and disseminate while evading host immune responses. The mechanisms by which virulent type A strains of Francisella tularensis accomplish this evasion are not(More)
Tuberculous latency and reactivation play a significant role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, yet the mechanisms that regulate these processes remain unclear. The Mycobacterium tuberculosisuniversal stress protein (USP) homolog, rv2623, is among the most highly induced genes when the tubercle bacillus is subjected to hypoxia and nitrosative stress,(More)
Melioidosis is a disease of humans caused by opportunistic infection with the soil and water bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis can manifest as an acute, overwhelming infection or as a chronic, recurrent infection. At present, it is not clear where B. pseudomallei resides in the mammalian host during the chronic, recurrent phase of infection.(More)
The recent epidemic of the arthritogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has prompted a quest to understand the correlates of protection against virus and disease in order to inform development of new interventions. Herein we highlight the propensity of CHIKV infections to persist long term, both as persistent, steady-state, viraemias in multiple B(More)
BACKGROUND Blastocystis species are common human enteric parasites. Carriage has been linked to Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Treatment of Blastocystis spp. with antimicrobials is problematic and insensitive diagnostic methods and re-infection complicate assessment of eradication. We investigated whether triple antibiotic therapy comprising diloxanide(More)
Cell-mediated, but not antibody-mediated, immune responses protect humans against certain pathogens that produce chronic diseases such as leishmaniasis. Effective vaccination against such pathogens must therefore produce an immunological "imprint" so that stable, cell-mediated immunity is induced in all individuals after natural infection. BALB/c mice(More)
Differential genomic DNA methylation has the potential to influence the development of T cell cytokine production profiles. Therefore, we have conducted a clonal analysis of interferon (IFN)-␥ and interleukin (IL)-3 gene methylation and messenger (m)RNA expression in primary CD8 ϩ T cells during the early stages of activation, growth, and cytokine(More)
Recent outbreaks of avian influenza in humans have stressed the need for an improved nonhuman primate model of influenza pathogenesis. In order to further develop a macaque model, we expanded our previous in vivo genomics experiments with influenza virus-infected macaques by focusing on the innate immune response at day 2 postinoculation and on gene(More)
Current evidence indicates that the chronic inflammation observed in the intestines of patients with inflammatory bowel disease is due to an aberrant immune response to enteric flora. We have developed a lipid A-mimetic, CRX-526, which has antagonistic activity for TLR4 and can block the interaction of LPS with the immune system. CRX-526 can prevent the(More)
We are still inadequately prepared for an influenza pandemic due to the lack of a vaccine effective for subtypes to which the majority of the human population has no prior immunity and which could be produced rapidly in sufficient quantities. There is therefore an urgent need to investigate novel vaccination approaches. Using a combination of genomic and(More)