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Autophagy is an important intracellular catabolic mechanism that mediates the degradation of cytoplasmic proteins and organelles. We report a potent small molecule inhibitor of autophagy named "spautin-1" for specific and potent autophagy inhibitor-1. Spautin-1 promotes the degradation of Vps34 PI3 kinase complexes by inhibiting two ubiquitin-specific(More)
Although the cause and outcome of mitotic catastrophe (MC) has been thoroughly investigated, precisely how the ensuing lethality is regulated during or following this process and what signals are involved remain unknown. Moreover, the mechanism of the decision of cell death modalities following MC is still not well characterised. We demonstrate here a(More)
The aim of the study was to test the performance of a silver wire modified version of the coded telemetric heart rate monitor Polar Vantage NV (PVNV) and to measure heart rate (HR) in a group of captive reindeer calves during different behaviour. The technical performance of PVNV HR monitors was tested in cold conditions (-30 degrees C) using a pulse(More)
Although reindeer are well adapted to limited food resources during winter, semi-domesticated reindeer are regularly fed when snow conditions are bad in order to prevent starvation. Feeding sometimes results in health problems and loss of animals. This study was made to assess if activity pattern in reindeer could be used as a tool for the reindeer herder(More)
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