Heli Harvala

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Rhinovirus infections are the most common cause of viral illness in humans, and there is increasing evidence of their etiological role in severe acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are classified into two species, species A and B, which contain over 100 serotypes, and a recently discovered genetically heterogeneous third(More)
BACKGROUND Human parechoviruses (HPeVs), along with human enteroviruses (HEVs), are associated with neonatal sepsis and meningitis. We determined the relative importance of these viruses and the specific HPeV types involved in the development of central nervous system-associated disease. METHODS A total of 1575 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained(More)
Human enteroviruses (EVs) and more recently parechoviruses (HPeVs) have been identified as the principal viral causes of neonatal sepsis-like disease and meningitis. The relative frequencies of specific EV and HPeV types were determined over a 5-year surveillance period using highly sensitive EV and HPeV PCR assays for screening 4,168 cerebrospinal fluid(More)
The relationship between virus evolution and recombination in species B human enteroviruses was investigated through large-scale genetic analysis of echovirus type 9 (E9) and E11 isolates (n = 85 and 116) from 16 European, African, and Asian countries between 1995 and 2008. Cluster 1 E9 isolates and genotype D5 and A E11 isolates showed evidence of frequent(More)
Infections with human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are prevalent in young children and have been associated with mild gastroenteritis and, less frequently, with meningitis and neonatal sepsis. To investigate the involvement of these viruses in respiratory disease, a highly sensitive nested PCR was used to screen a large archive of respiratory specimens, collected(More)
Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are members of the large and growing family of Picornaviridae. Although originally described as echovirus 22 and 23 within human enteroviruses because of their clinical and morphological properties, they have since been shown to be distinct from this and other picornavirus groups in several features of their genome organisation,(More)
BACKGROUND Human enteroviruses (HEV) are a major cause of meningitis and other neurological disease. Identification of HEV serotypes in clinical cases is important for monitoring emergence of more pathogenic variants, epidemiological surveillance and investigating sources of infection. Serotype identification is currently problematic following the(More)
Genetic relationships between 35 clinical isolates of coxsackievirus A9 (CAV9), collected during the last five decades from different geographical regions, were investigated by partial sequencing. Analysis of a 150 nucleotide sequence at the VP1/2A junction region identified 12 CAV9 genotypes. While most of the strains within each genotype showed(More)
OBJECTIVES Enteroviruses (EV) and human parechoviruses (HPeV) infections are increasingly identified in neonates and young children with sepsis, meningitis and encephalitis. We investigated EV and HPeV viral loads in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) among those presenting with sepsis or central nervous system (CNS) disease to gain understanding of the(More)
Human enteroviruses (EV) and parechoviruses (HPeV) within the family Picornaviridae are the most common causes of viral central nervous system (CNS)-associated infections including meningitis and neonatal sepsis-like disease. The frequencies of EV and HPeV types identified in clinical specimens collected in Scotland over an eight-year period were compared(More)