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Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a widespread symbiotic association between plants and fungal microsymbionts that supports plant development under nutrient-limiting and various stress conditions. In this study, we focused on the overlapping genetic program activated by two commonly studied microsymbionts in addition to identifying AM-related genes. We thus(More)
Sinorhizobium meliloti is an alpha-proteobacterium that alternates between a free-living phase in bulk soil or in the rhizosphere of plants and a symbiotic phase within the host plant cells, where the bacteria ultimately differentiate into nitrogen-fixing organelle-like cells, called bacteroids. As a step toward understanding the physiology of S. meliloti(More)
Significant changes in root morphology and physiology during arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) development are likely to be controlled by specific gene expression pattern in the host plant. Until now, little was known about transcriptional changes which occur AM-exclusively; that is, they do not occur during other root-microbe associations, nor are they induced by(More)
Simple, readily utilizable carbohydrates, necessary for growth and maintenance of large numbers of microbes are rare in forest soils. Among other types of mutualistic interactions, the formation of ectomycorrhizas, a symbiosis between tree roots and certain soil fungi, is a way to overcome nutrient and carbohydrate limitations typical for many forest(More)
Proteins directing the biosynthesis of galactoglucan (exopolysaccharide II) in Rhizobium meliloti Rm2011 are encoded by the exp genes. Sequence analysis of a 32-kb DNA fragment of megaplasmid 2 containing the exp gene cluster identified previously (J. Glazebrook and G. C. Walker, Cell 56:661-672, 1989) revealed the presence of 25 open reading frames.(More)
The MtSucS1 gene encodes a sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13) in the model legume Medicago truncatula. To determine the expression pattern of this gene in different organs and in particular during root endosymbioses, we transformed M. truncatula with specific regions of MtSucS1 fused to the gusAint reporter gene. These fusions directed an induction to the(More)
The MtTrHb1 and MtTrHb2 genes of the model legume Medicago truncatula Gaertn. encode proteins homologous to truncated hemoglobins (TrHb) from plants and a range of different microorganisms. Induction of MtTrHb1 in root nodules and expression of MtTrHb2 in root nodules, as well as in mycorrhizal roots, were shown by quantitative real-time reverse(More)
• The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is arguably the most ecologically important eukaryotic symbiosis, yet it is poorly understood at the molecular level. To provide novel insights into the molecular basis of symbiosis-associated traits, we report the first genome-wide analysis of the transcriptome from Glomus intraradices DAOM 197198. • We generated a(More)
Full-length transcript sequences were isolated from broad bean root nodules, which encode a novel nodulin designated VfENOD18. The corresponding transcripts were detected in early and in late stages of nodule development and were localized exclusively in the nitrogen-fixing zone III. The VfENOD18 sequence is not only homologous to a number of ESTs from(More)
Despite its importance in determining seed composition, and hence quality, regulation of the development of legume seeds is incompletely understood. Because of the cardinal role played by the nucleus in gene expression and regulation, we have characterized the nuclear proteome of Medicago truncatula at the 12 days after pollination (dap) stage that marks(More)