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Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a widespread symbiotic association between plants and fungal microsymbionts that supports plant development under nutrient-limiting and various stress conditions. In this study, we focused on the overlapping genetic program activated by two commonly studied microsymbionts in addition to identifying AM-related genes. We thus(More)
The MtTrHb1 and MtTrHb2 genes of the model legume Medicago truncatula Gaertn. encode proteins homologous to truncated hemoglobins (TrHb) from plants and a range of different microorganisms. Induction of MtTrHb1 in root nodules and expression of MtTrHb2 in root nodules, as well as in mycorrhizal roots, were shown by quantitative real-time reverse(More)
Proteins directing the biosynthesis of galactoglucan (exopolysaccharide II) in Rhizobium meliloti Rm2011 are encoded by the exp genes. Sequence analysis of a 32-kb DNA fragment of megaplasmid 2 containing the exp gene cluster identified previously (J. Glazebrook and G. C. Walker, Cell 56:661-672, 1989) revealed the presence of 25 open reading frames.(More)
• The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is arguably the most ecologically important eukaryotic symbiosis, yet it is poorly understood at the molecular level. To provide novel insights into the molecular basis of symbiosis-associated traits, we report the first genome-wide analysis of the transcriptome from Glomus intraradices DAOM 197198. • We generated a(More)
In this study the further characterization of the Vicia faba leghaemoglobin promoter pVfLb29 is presented that was previously shown to be specifically active in the infected cells of root nodules and in arbuscule-containing cells of mycorrhizal roots. Using promoter studies in transgenic hairy roots of the Pisum sativum mutant RisNod24, disabled in the(More)
To investigate regulatory processes and protective mechanisms leading to desiccation tolerance (DT) in seeds, 16086-element microarrays were used to monitor changes in the transcriptome of desiccation-sensitive 3-mm-long radicles of Medicago truncatula seeds at different time points during incubation in a polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution at -1.7 MPa,(More)
Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are the most widespread symbioses on Earth, promoting nutrient supply of most terrestrial plant species. To unravel gene expression in defined stages of Medicago truncatula root colonization by AM fungi, we here combined genome-wide transcriptome profiling based on whole mycorrhizal roots with real-time reverse transcription-PCR(More)
Sinorhizobium meliloti is an alpha-proteobacterium that alternates between a free-living phase in bulk soil or in the rhizosphere of plants and a symbiotic phase within the host plant cells, where the bacteria ultimately differentiate into nitrogen-fixing organelle-like cells, called bacteroids. As a step toward understanding the physiology of S. meliloti(More)
Simple, readily utilizable carbohydrates, necessary for growth and maintenance of large numbers of microbes are rare in forest soils. Among other types of mutualistic interactions, the formation of ectomycorrhizas, a symbiosis between tree roots and certain soil fungi, is a way to overcome nutrient and carbohydrate limitations typical for many forest(More)
Nod factors are key bacterial signaling molecules regulating the symbiotic interaction between bacteria known as rhizobia and leguminous plants. Studying plant host genes whose expression is affected by Nod factors has given insights into early symbiotic signaling and development. Here, we used a double supernodulating mutant line that shows increased(More)