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An efficient method for genetic transformation of lactococci by electroporation is presented. Highly competent lactococci for electrotransformation were obtained by growing cells in media containing high concentrations of glycine and 0.5 M sucrose as the osmotic stabilizers. These cells could be stored at -85 degrees C without loss of competence. With(More)
The strain Enterococcus faecium T136 produces two bacteriocins, enterocin A, a member of the pediocin family of bacteriocins, and a new bacteriocin termed enterocin B. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of enterocins A and B were determined, and the gene encoding enterocin B was sequenced. The primary translation product was a 71 aa peptide containing a(More)
A large number of new bacteriocins in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been characterized in recent years. Most of the new bacteriocins belong to the class II bacteriocins which are small (30–100 amino acids) heat-stable and commonly not post-translationally modified. While most bacteriocin producers synthesize only one bacteriocin, it has been shown that(More)
A new bacteriocin has been isolated from an Enterococcus faecium strain. The bacteriocin, termed enterocin A, was purified to homogeneity as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and mass spectrometry analysis. By combining the data obtained from amino acid and DNA sequencing, the primary(More)
The mechanisms of target cell recognition and producer cell self-protection (immunity) are both important yet poorly understood issues in the biology of peptide bacteriocins. In this report, we provide genetic and biochemical evidence that lactococcin A, a permeabilizing peptide-bacteriocin from Lactococcus lactis, uses components of the mannose(More)
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fight competing Gram-positive microorganisms by secreting anti-microbial peptides called bacteriocins. Peptide bacteriocins are usually divided into lantibiotics (class I) and non-lantibiotics (class II), the latter being the main topic of this review. During the past decade many of these bacteriocins have been isolated and(More)
A lactococcal bacteriocin, termed lactococcin G, was purified to homogeneity by a simple four-step purification procedure that includes ammonium sulfate precipitation, binding to a cation exchanger and octyl-Sepharose CL-4B, and reverse-phase chromatography. The final yield was about 20%, and nearly a 7,000-fold increase in the specific activity was(More)
Enterococcus faecium L50 grown at 16 to 32 degrees C produces enterocin L50 (EntL50), consisting of EntL50A and EntL50B, two unmodified non-pediocin-like peptides synthesized without an N-terminal leader sequence or signal peptide. However, the bacteriocin activity found in the cell-free culture supernatants following growth at higher temperatures (37 to 47(More)
Production of the bacteriocins enterocin A and enterocin B in Enterococcus faecium CTC492 was dependent on the presence of an extracellular peptide produced by the strain itself. This induction factor (EntF) was purified, and amino acid sequencing combined with DNA sequencing of the corresponding gene identified it as a peptide of 25 amino acids. The gene(More)
Plantaricin W (Plw) is a new two-peptide bacteriocin, from Lactobacillus plantarum, which inhibits a large number of Gram-positive bacteria. The two peptides, Plwalpha (comprising 29 residues) and Plwbeta (comprising 32 residues), were isolated from the culture supernatants and characterized. The individual peptides had low antimicrobial activity but acted(More)